China's first Mars exploration mission will carry out comprehensive global surveys of the planet from data collected by instruments carried in orbit and roving on the planet itself. Goals of the mission include detailed inspections and surveys of key areas on the surface of Mars. One of the main scientific payloads installed on the orbiter is the moderate resolution camera. Its mission is to image the surface of Mars sufficiently to produce a global remote sensing image map of the planet, and to explore and record changes to the topography of Mars, including major geological structures, and to advance research on topography and geomorphology in general. The moderate resolution camera uses a lightweight and compact integrated design; its primary components are an optical module, a focal plane module, a camera control module, a power and interface module, a camera support module, a thermal control module, and a reference module. Radiometric calibration, color calibration, and geometric calibration have been carried out to ensure that the camera can acquire sufficient accurate data to complete mission goals. This paper introduces the camera's detection mission, its system composition, and its working principle; it also describes the camera's ground calibration tests and their results, and provides a reference for processing the camera's scientific data and for future applications.