ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

2019 Vol.3(3)

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Species-dependent ion escape on Titan
Fa-Yu Jiang, Jun Cui, Ji-Yao Xu, Yong Wei
2019, 3(3): 183-189. doi: 10.26464/epp2019020
Cassini observations over the past ten years have revealed that Titan possesses a chemically complex ionosphere. In this study, we investigate the relative contributions of different ion species to the total ion escape on Titan, by dividing all ion species probed by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) into six groups according to their mass-to-charge ratios (M/Z). For the three lightest ion groups, with characteristic M/Z of 22, 41, and 52 daltons , the observed scale heights tend to be lower than the scale heights predicted by assuming diffusive equilibrium; for the three heavier groups, observed and predicted scale heights are in general agreement, implying that most ion escape from Titan is by relatively light species, with M/Z < 60 daltons. A diffusion model is constructed to describe the density distribution of each ion group in regions where the effect of ionospheric chemistry could be neglected. The data model comparison predicts an optimal total ion escape rate of 3.1×1024 s–1, of which more than 99% is contributed by relatively light ions with M/Z < 32 daltons.
Multiple satellites observation evidence: High-m Poloidal ULF waves with time-varying polarization states
Chao Wei, Lei Dai, SuPing Duan, Chi Wang, YuXian Wang
2019, 3(3): 190-203. doi: 10.26464/epp2019021
We report multi-spacecraft observations of ULF waves from Van Allen Probes (RBSP), Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm (THEMIS), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). On August 31, 2015, global-scale poloidal waves were observed in data from RBSP-B, GOES and THEMIS from L=4 to L=8 over a wide range of magnetic local time (MLT). The polarization states varied towards purely poloidal polarity. In two consecutive orbits over 18 hours, RBSP-A and RBSP-B recorded gradual variation of the polarization states of the poloidal waves; the ratio (|Ba|/|Br|) decreased from 0.82 to 0.13. After the variation of polarization states, the poloidal ULF waves became very purely poloidal waves, localized in both L and MLT. We identify the poloidal wave as second harmonic mode with a large azimuthal wave number (m) of –232. From RBSP particle measurements we find evidence that the high-m poloidal waves during the polarization variations were powered by inward radial gradients and bump-on-tail ion distributions through the N=1 drift-bounce resonance. Most of the time, the dominant free energy source was inward radial gradients, compared with the positive gradient in the energy distribution of the bump-on-tail ion distributions.
Heating of multi-species upflowing ion beams observed by Cluster on March 28, 2001
FangBo Yu, SuiYan Fu, WeiJie Sun, XuZhi Zhou, Lun Xie, Han Liu, Duo Zhao, ShaoJie Zhao, Li Li, JingWen Zhang, Tong Wu, Ying Xiong
2019, 3(3): 204-211. doi: 10.26464/epp2019022
Cluster satellites observed three successive outflowing ion beams on 28 March, 2001. It is generally accepted that these ion beams, composed of H+, He+, and O+ ions, with three inverted-V structures in their energy spectra, are produced by acceleration through U-shaped potential structures. By eliminating the background ion population and employing Maxwelling fitting, we find that ions coming from the center of the potential structure have higher temperature than those from the flanks. Higher temperature of O+ and He+ compared to that of H+ indicates that heavy ions are preferentially heated; we further infer that the heating efficiencies of O+ and He+ ions differ between the center and edges of the U-shaped potential structures. Estimation based on pitch angle observations shows that heating may also occur at an altitude above the upper boundary of the auroral acceleration region (AAR), where these beams are generally thought to be formed.
Analyses of anomalous amplitudes of antipodal PKIIKP waves
WenShuang Wang, XiaoDong Song
2019, 3(3): 212-217. doi: 10.26464/epp2019023
Approaching the distance of 180°, seismic focusing greatly amplifies the normally weak PKIIKP phase (underside reflection from the inner core boundary). Anomalously strong amplitudes of the PKIIKP phase reported previously at near antipodal distances (at seismic station TAM in North Africa) have been interpreted to infer anomalous structure(s) of the inner core boundary (including a sharp drop of compressional wave speed in the bottommost outer core or a near-zero shear wave speed in the topmost inner core). However, our observations of 12 earthquakes located antipodal to TAM (including the previously cited four events) suggest, for several reasons, that the anomalous PKIIKP energy might be a seismic phase misidentification. The anomalous phase appeared at distances less than 179.6° but not at larger distances (~179.8°). The phase appears consistently from antipode to distances less than 160° and has horizontal slowness similar to the PKIKP phase (going straight through the inner core). Its travel times vary greatly and show a systematic difference between two groups of events at different distances. A simple point scatter provides a good match to the travel times and the systematic variation of the anomalous phase at most stations, suggesting that it could originate from scattering off strong heterogeneities in the mantle wedge above the subducting Tonga slab. The phase misidentification suggests that the previously proposed inner core boundary structure(s) based on the anomalous phase need to be re-evaluated.
Ambient noise Love wave tomography of China
ZhiGao Yang, XiaoDong Song
2019, 3(3): 218-231. doi: 10.26464/epp2019026
We first report on the Love wave tomography of China based on ambient noise cross-correlations. We used 3 years of continuous waveform data recorded by 206 broadband seismic stations on the Chinese Mainland and 36 neighboring global stations and obtained Love wave empirical Green’s functions from cross-correlations of the horizontal components. The Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements were used to construct dispersion maps of 8- to 40-s periods, which were then inverted to obtain a three-dimensional horizontally polarized S-wave (SH) velocity structure. The resolution was approximately 4° × 4° and 8° × 8° for eastern and western China, respectively, and extended to a depth of approximately 50 km. The SH model was generally consistent with a previously published vertically polarized S-wave (SV) model and showed large-scale features that were consistent with geological units, such as the major basins and changes in the crustal thickness across the north-south gravity lineament. The SH and SV models also showed substantial differences, which were used to examine the subsurface radial anisotropy. We define the radial anisotropy parameter as \begin{document}$\psi = 2\left( {{V_{\rm SH}} - {V_{\rm SV}}} \right)/\left( {{V_{\rm SH}} + {V_{\rm SV}}} \right)$\end{document}. At a shallow depth, we observed significant radial anisotropy under major basins, which may be related to thick sedimentary layers. At the mid to lower crust, most of the Chinese continent showed strong positive radial anisotropy (SH > SV). Central and southern Tibet showed strong positive anisotropy, whereas the radial anisotropy was relatively weak at the northern and eastern margins, which suggests a change in deformation style from the plateau interior to its margins. The North China craton showed prominent positive radial anisotropy, which may be related to decratonization and strong extension since the Mesozoic Era. Love waves are less well retrieved than Rayleigh waves from ambient noise cross-correlations. Increasing the duration of the cross-correlation data beyond 4 to 8 years may not aid in retrieving Love waves of longer periods, for which improved methods need to be explored.
Crustal structure beneath the Qilian Orogen Zone from multiscale seismic tomography
Biao Guo, JiuHui Chen, QiYuan Liu, ShunCheng Li
2019, 3(3): 232-242. doi: 10.26464/epp2019025
The Qilian Orogen Zone (QOZ), located in the north margin of the Tibetan Plateau, is the key area for understanding the deformation and dynamics process of Tibet. Numerous geological and geophysical studies have been carried out on the mechanics of the Tibetan Plateau deformation and uplift; however, the detailed structure and deformation style of the Qilian Orogen Zone have remained uncertain due to poor geophysical data coverage and limited resolution power of inversion algorithms. In this study, we analyze the P-wave velocity structure beneath the Qilian Orogen Zone, obtained by applying multi-scale seismic tomography technique to P-wave arrival time data recorded by regional seismic networks. The seismic tomography algorithm used in this study employs sparsity constraints on the wavelet representation of the velocity model via L1-norm regularization. This algorithm can deal efficiently with uneven-sampled volumes, and can obtain multi-scale images of the velocity model. Our results can be summarized as follows: (1) The crustal velocity structure is strongly inhomogeneous and consistent with the surface geological setting. Significant low-velocity anomalies exist in the crust of northeastern Tibet, and slight high-velocity anomalies exist beneath the Qaidam Basin and Alxa terrane. (2) The Qilian Orogen Zone can be divided into two main parts by the Laji Shan Faults: the northwestern part with a low-velocity feature, and the southeastern part with a high-velocity feature at the upper and middle crust. (3) Our tomographic images suggest that northwestern and southeastern Qilian Orogen Zones have undergone different tectonic processes. In the northwest Qilian Orogen Zone, the deformation and growth of the Northern Tibetan Plateau has extended to the Heli Shan and Beida Shan region by northward over-thrusting at the upper crust and thickening in the lower crust. We speculate that in the southeast Qilian Orogen Zone the deformation and growth of the Northern Tibet Plateau were of strike-slip style at the upper crust; in the lower crust, the evidence suggests ductile shear extrusion style and active frontage extension to the Alxa terrane. (4) The multi-scale seismic tomography technique provides multi-scale analysis and sparse constraints, which has allowed to us obtain stable, high-resolution results.
Regional stress field in Yunnan revealed by the focal mechanisms of moderate and small earthquakes
JianHui Tian, Yan Luo, Li Zhao
2019, 3(3): 243-252. doi: 10.26464/epp2019024
We determined focal mechanism solutions of 627 earthquakes of magnitude M ≥ 3.0 in Yunnan from January 2008 to May 2018 by using broadband waveforms recorded by 287 permanent and temporary regional stations. The results clearly revealed predominantly strike-slip faulting characteristics for earthquakes in Yunnan, with focal depths concentrated in the top 10 km of the crust. The earthquake mechanisms obtained were combined with the global centroid moment tensor solutions of 80 additional earthquakes from 1976 to 2016 to invert for the regional variations of stress field orientation by using a damped regional-scale stress inversion scheme. Results of the stress field inversion confirmed that the Yunnan region is under a strike–slip stress regime, with both maximum and minimum stress axes being nearly horizontal. The maximum compressional axes are primarily oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, and they experience a clockwise rotation from north to south, whereas the maximum extensional axes are oriented largely northeast-southwest. The maximum compressional axes are in line with the global positioning system–inferred horizontal velocity field and the southeastward escape of the Sichuan–Yunnan Rhombic Block, whereas the maximum extensional axes are consistent with anisotropy derived from SKS splitting. Against the strike–slip background, normal faulting stress regimes can be seen in the Tengchong volcanic area as well as in other areas with complex crisscrossing fault zones.
Geometry and tectonic deformation of the seismogenic structure for the 8 August 2017 MS 7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquake sequence, northern Sichuan, China
Feng Long, GuiXi Yi, SiWei Wang, YuPing Qi, Min Zhao
2019, 3(3): 253-267. doi: 10.26464/epp2019027
To reveal the geometry of the seismogenic structure of the Aug. 8, 2017 MS 7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquake in northern Sichuan, data from the regional seismic network from the time of the main event to Oct. 31, 2017 were used to relocate the earthquake sequence by the tomoDD program, and the focal mechanism solutions and centroid depths of the ML ≥ 3.5 events in the sequence were determined using the CAP waveform inversion method. Further, the segmental tectonic deformation characteristics of the seismogenic faults were analyzed preliminarily by using strain rosettes and areal strains (As). The results indicate: (1) The relocated MS 7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquake sequence displays a narrow ~ 38 km long NNW-SSE-trending zone between the NW-striking Tazang Fault and the nearly NS-striking Minjiang Fault, two branches of the East Kunlun Fault Zone. The spatial distribution of the sequence is narrow and deep for the southern segment, and relatively wide and shallow for the northern segment. The initial rupture depth of the mainshock is 12.5 km, the dominant depth range of the aftershock sequence is between 0 and 10 km with an average depth of 6.7 km. The mainshock epicenter is located in the middle of the aftershock region, showing a bilateral rupture behavior. The centroid depths of 32 ML ≥ 3.5 events range from 3 to 12 km with a mean of about 7.3 km, consistent with the predominant focal depth of the whole sequence. (2) The geometric structure of the seismogenic fault on the southern section of the aftershock area (south of the mainshock) is relatively simple, with overall strike of ~150° and dip angle ~75°, but the dip angle and dip-orientation exhibit some variation along the segment. The seismogenic structure on the northern segment is more complicated; several faults, including the Minjiang Fault, may be responsible for the aftershock activities. The overall strike of this section is ~159° and dip angle is ~59°, illustrating a certain clockwise rotation and a smaller dip angle than the southern segment. The differences between the two segments demonstrate variation of the geometric structure along the seismogenic faults. (3) The focal mechanism solutions of 32 ML ≥ 3.5 events in the earthquake sequence have obvious segmental characteristics. Strike-slip earthquakes are dominant on the southern segment, while 50% of events on the northern segment are thrusting and oblique thrusting earthquakes, revealing significant differences in the kinematic features of the seismogenic faults between the two segments. (4) The strain rosettes for the mainshock and the entire sequence of 31 ML ≥ 3.5 aftershocks correspond to strike-slip type with NWW-SEE compressional white lobes and NNE-SSW extensional black lobes of nearly similar size. The strain rosette and As value of the entire sequence of 22 ML ≥ 3.5 events on the southern segment are the same as those of the MS 7.0 mainshock, indicating that the tectonic deformation here is strike-slip. However, the strain rosette of the entire sequence of 10 ML ≥ 3.5 events on the northern segment show prominent white compressional lobes and small black extensional lobes, and the related As value is up to 0.52, indicating that the tectonic deformation of this segment is oblique thrusting with a certain strike-slip component. Differences between the two segments all reveal distinctly obvious segmental characteristics of the tectonic deformation of the seismogenic faults for the Jiuzhaigou earthquake sequence.
The 2018 MS 5.9 Mojiang Earthquake: Source model and intensity based on near-field seismic recordings
Xu Zhang, Zhen Fu, LiSheng Xu, ChunLai Li, Hong Fu
2019, 3(3): 268-281. doi: 10.26464/epp2019028
On September 8, 2018, an MS 5.9 earthquake struck Mojiang, a county in Yunnan Province, China. We collect near-field seismic recordings (epicentral distances less than 200 km) to relocate the mainshock and the aftershocks within the first 60 hours to determine the focal mechanism solutions of the mainshock and some of the aftershocks and to invert for the finite-fault model of the mainshock. The focal mechanism solution of the mainshock and the relocation results of the aftershocks constrain the mainshock on a nearly vertical fault plane striking northeast and dipping to the southeast. The inversion of the finite-fault model reveals only a single slip asperity on the fault plane. The major slip is distributed above the initiation point, ~14 km wide along the down-dip direction and ~14 km long along the strike direction, with a maximal slip of ~22 cm at a depth of ~6 km. The focal mechanism solutions of the aftershocks show that most of the aftershocks are of the strike-slip type, a number of them are of the normal-slip type, and only a few of them are of the thrust-slip type. On average, strike-slip is dominant on the fault plane of the mainshock, as the focal mechanism solution of the mainshock suggests, but when examined in detail, slight thrust-slip appears on the southwest of the fault plane while an obvious part of normal-slip appears on the northeast, which is consistent with what the focal mechanism solutions of the aftershocks display. The multiple types of aftershock focal mechanism solutions and the slip details of the mainshock both suggest a complex tectonic setting, stress setting, or both. The intensity contours predicted exhibit a longer axis trending from northeast to southwest and a maximal intensity of Ⅷ around the epicenter and in the northwest.