High energy particles are the main target of satellite space exploration; particle storm events are closely related to solar activity, cosmic ray distribution, and magnetic storms. The commonly seen energetic particle (electron) precipitation anomalous structures include mainly the inner and outer Van Allen radiation belts, the South Atlantic anomaly, and the anomalous stripes excited by artificial electromagnetic waves. The China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CESE), launched in February of 2018, provides a platform for studying ionospheric particle disturbances. This paper reports the first studies of electron precipitation phenomenon based on high energy particle data from the CSES satellite. We find that the global distribution of electrons in the low energy band (0.1–3 MeV) can relatively well reflect the structure of the anomalous precipitation belt, which is consistent with results based on data from the DEMETER satellite, indicating that the quality of the low-energy band data from the energetic particle instrumentation of the CSES satellite is good. In addition, this paper makes an in-depth study of the electron precipitation belt excited by the NWC artificial VLF electromagnetic wave transmitter located in Australia, which appears as a typical wisp structure on the energy spectrum. The magnetic shell parameter L corresponding to the precipitation belt ranges from 1.44 to 1.74, which is close to the L value (~1.45) of the Australian NWC transmitter; the energy of the precipitation electrons is between 100 keV and 361.57 keV, among which the precipitation of 213.73 keV electrons is most conspicuous.
Four levels of the data from the search coil magnetometer (SCM) onboard the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) are defined and described. The data in different levels all contain three components of the waveform and spectrum of the induced magnetic field around the orbit in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 20 kHz; these are divided into an ultra-low-frequency band (ULF, 10–200 Hz), an extremely low frequency band (ELF, 200–2200 Hz), and a very low frequency band (VLF, 1.8–20 kHz). Examples of data products for Level-2, Level-3, and Level-4 are presented. The initial results obtained in the commission test phase demonstrated that the SCM was in a normal operational status and that the data are of high enough quality to reliably capture most space weather events related to low-frequency geomagnetic disturbances.
In June 2018, for the first time, the SURA heating facility in Russia , together with the in-orbit China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), carried out a series of experiments in emitting high frequency (HF) O-mode radio waves to disturb the ionosphere. This paper reports data from those experiments, collected onboard CSES, including electric field, in-situ plasma parameters, and energetic particle flux. Five cases are analyzed, two cases in local daytime and three in local nighttime. We find that the pumping wave frequencies f0 in local daytime were close to the critical frequency of the F2 layer foF2, but no pumping waves were detected by the electric field detector (EFD) on CSES even when the emitted power reached 90 MW, and no obvious plasma disturbances were observed from CSES in those two daytime cases. But on June 16, there existed a spread F phenomena when f0 was lower than foF2 at that local daytime period. During the three cases in local nighttime, the pumping waves were clearly distinguished in the HF-band electric field at the emitted frequency with the emitted power only 30MW; the power spectrum density of the electric field was larger by an order of magnitude than the normal background, with the propagating radius exceeding 200 km. Due to the small foF2 over SURA in June at that local nighttime period,f0 in these three cases were significantly higher than foF2, all belonging to under-dense heating conditions. As for the plasma parameters, only an increase of about 100 K in ion temperature was observed on June 12; in the other two cases (with one orbit without plasma data on June 17), no obvious plasma disturbances were found. This first joint SURA-CSES experiment illustrates that the present orbit of CSES can cross quite close to the SURA facility, which can insure an effective heating time from SURA so that CSES can observe the perturbations at the topside ionosphere excited by SURA in the near region. The detection of plasma disturbances on June 12 with under-dense heating mode in local nighttime provides evidence for likely success of future related experiments between CSES and SURA, or with other HF facilities.
The Langmuir probe (LAP), onboard the China seismic electromagnetic satellite (CSES), has been designed for in situ measurements of bulk parameters of the ionosphere plasma, the first Chinese application of in-situ measurement technology in the field of space exploration. The two main parameters measured by LAP are electron density and temperature. In this paper, a brief description of the LAP and its work mode are provided. Based on characteristics of the LAP, and assuming an ideal plasma environment, we introduce in detail a method used to invert the I-V curve; the data products that can be accessed by users are shown. Based on the LAP data available, this paper reports that events such as earthquakes and magnetic storms are preceded and followed by obvious abnormal changes. We suggest that LAP could provide a valuable data set for studies of space weather, seismic events, and the ionospheric environment.
Wave-particle interactions triggered by whistler-mode chorus waves are an important contributor to the Jovian radiation belt electron dynamics. While the sensitivity of chorus-driven electron scattering to the ambient magnetospheric and wave parameters has been investigated, there is rather limited understanding regarding the extent to which the dynamic evolution of Jovian radiation belt electrons, under the impact of chorus wave scattering, depends on the electron distribution profiles. We adopt a group of reasonable initial conditions based upon the available observations and models for quantitative analyses. We find that inclusion of pitch angle variation in initial conditions can result in increased electron losses at lower pitch angles and substantially modify the pitch angle evolution profiles of > ~500 keV electrons, while variations of electron energy spectrum tend to modify the evolution primarily of 1 MeV and 5 MeV electrons. Our results explicitly demonstrate the importance to the radiation belt electron dynamics in the Jovian magnetosphere of the initial shape of the electron phase space density, and indicate the extent to which variations in electron energy spectrum and pitch angle distribution can contribute to the evolution of Jovian radiation belt electrons caused by chorus wave scattering.
Most basaltic shergottites are too Mg-rich to represent parent melt compositions because they contain some cumulus pyroxenes. However, basaltic shergottite Northwest Africa (NWA) 8656 with subophitic texture can be used as the parent melt composition in petrogenetic studies because it contains no or rare cumulus pyroxenes. Its pyroxene cores (Mg# 66-68, the most magnesian) are in equilibrium with the bulk rock composition based on major (Fe-Mg) and trace elements (REE—rare earth elements). The patchy zoning of pyroxenes has been interpreted as reflecting a two-stage crystallization history: 1) crystallization of Mg-rich pyroxene cores at depth (50 km, the base of Martian crust), 2) crystallization of Fe-rich pyroxene rims at the shallow depth near the Martian surface with a fast cooling history. The crystallization of Fe-rich pyroxenes and the existence of different symplectites indicate that NWA 8656 underwent eruption. The oxygen fugacity of NWA 8656 (QFM –0.9±0.5) suggests an oxidized condition at the late-stage crystallization process, and the CI-normalized REE patterns of different minerals show enrichment in LREE, compared to that of depleted shergottites. Both of these observations suggest a relatively ITE (incompatible trace elements)-enriched signature of NWA 8656, similar to those of other enriched shergottites. The REE compositions of augite core and rim and plagioclase can be successfully reproduced by progressive crystallization without exogenous components, which indicates a closed magmatic system for NWA 8656. Consequently, we conclude that the ITE-enriched signature of NWA 8656 is inherited from an enriched mantle source rather than caused by crustal assimilation. Moreover, partial melting of depleted Martian mantle could not directly yield magmas that have geochemical characteristics similar to enriched shergottite parent magmas, so the enriched and depleted shergottites are derived from distinct mantle sources, and the mantle source of enriched shergottites would be expected to contain ilmenite.
Yardangs are wind-eroded ridges usually observed in arid regions on Earth and other planets. Previous geomorphology studies of terrestrial yardang fields depended on satellite data and limited fieldwork. The geometry measurements of those yardangs based on satellite data are limited to the length, the width, and the spacing between the yardangs; elevations could not be studied due to the relatively low resolution of the satellite acquired elevation data, e.g. digital elevation models (DEMs). However, the elevation information (e.g. heights of the yardang surfaces) and related information (e.g. slope) of the yardangs are critical to understanding the characteristics and evolution of these aeolian features. Here we report a novel approach, using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to generate centimeter-resolution orthomosaics and DEMs for the study of whaleback yardangs in Qaidam Basin, NW China. The ultra-high-resolution data provide new insights into the geomorphology characteristics and evolution of the whaleback yardangs in Qaidam Basin. These centimeter-resolution datasets also have important potential in: (1) high accuracy estimation of erosion volume; (2) modeling in very fine scale of wind dynamics related to yardang formation; (3) detailed comparative planetary geomorphology study for Mars, Venus, and Titan.
The medium-small earthquakes that occurred in the middle part of Tibetan Plateau (32°N–36°N, 90°E–93°E) from August 2016 to June 2017 were relocated using the absolute earthquake location method Hypo2000. Compared to the reports of Chinese Seismological Networks, our relocation results are more clustered on the whole, the horizontal location differences exceed 10 km, and the focal depths are concentrated in 0–8 km, which indicates that the upper crust inside the Tibetan Plateau is tectonically active. In June 2017 altogether eight earthquakes above magnitude 3.0 took place; their relocated epicenters are concentrated around Gêladaindong. The relocation results of M<3.0 small earthquakes also showed obvious differences. Therefore, we used the CAP method to invert for the focal mechanisms of theM ≥3.0 earthquakes; results generally tally with the surface geological structures, indicating that the Tibetan Plateau is still under the strong compressional force from the India Plate. Among them the eight earthquakes that occurred near Gêladaindong in June 2017 are all of normal fault type or with some strike-slip at the same time; based on previous research results we conjecture that these events are intense shallow crust responses to deep crust-mantle activities.
The seismological characteristics of the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk bolide explosion are investigated based on seismograms recorded at 50 stations with epicentral distances ranging from 229 to 4324 km. By using 8–25 s vertical-component Rayleigh waveforms, we obtain a surface-wave magnitude of 4.17±0.31 for this event. According to the relationship among the Rayleigh-wave magnitude, burst height and explosive yield, the explosion yield is estimated to be 686 kt. Using a single-force source to fit the observed Rayleigh waveforms, we obtain a single force of 1.03×1012 N, which is equivalent to the impact from the shock wave generated by the bolide explosion.
Considering the uncertainty of the electrical axis for two-dimensional audo-magnetotelluric (AMT) data processing, an AMT inversion method with the Central impedance tensor was presented. First, we present a calculation expression of the Central impedance tensor in AMT, which can be considered as the arithmetic mean of TE-polarization mode and TM-polarization mode in the two-dimensional geo-electrical model. Second, a least-squares iterative inversion algorithm is established, based on a smoothness-constrained model, and an improved L-curve method is adopted to determine the best regularization parameters. We then test the above inversion method with synthetic data and field data. The test results show that this two-dimensional AMT inversion scheme for the responses of Central impedance is effective and can reconstruct reasonable two-dimensional subsurface resistivity structures. We conclude that the Central impedance tensor is a useful tool for two-dimensional inversion of AMT data.