Meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere can create meteor trail irregularity seriously disturbing the background ionosphere. Although numerous observations of meteor trail irregularities were performed with VHF/UHF coherent scatter radars in the past, no simultaneous radar and optical instruments were employed to investigate the characteristics of meteor trail irregularity and its corresponding meteoroid. By installing multiple video cameras near the Sanya VHF radar site, an observational campaign was conducted during the period from November 2016 to February 2017. A total of 242 optical meteors with simultaneous non-specular echoes backscattered from the plasma irregularities generated in the corresponding meteor trails were identified. A good agreement between the angular positions of non-specular echoes derived from the Sanya radar interferometer and those of optical meteors was found, validating that the radar system phase offsets have been properly calibrated. The results also verify the interferometry capability of Sanya radar for meteor trail irregularity observation. The non-specular echoes with simultaneous optical meteors were detected at magnetic aspect angles greater than ~78°. Based on the meteor visual magnitude estimated from the optical data, it was found that the radar non-specular echoes corresponding to brighter meteors survived for longer duration. This could provide observational evidence for the significance of meteoroid mass on the duration of meteor trail irregularity. On the other hand, the simultaneous radar and video common-volume observations showed that there were some cases with optical meteors but without radar non-specular echoes. One possibility could be that some of the optical meteors appeared at extremely low altitudes where meteor trail irregularities rarely occur.
Atmospheric escape is a key process controlling the long term evolution of planets. Radiative cooling competes for energy against atmospheric escape in planetary upper atmospheres. In this work, we use a population balance method and a Monte Carlo model to calculate the previously ignored emissions of metals (C, N, O and their ions) and compare them with radiative recombination of H II and Ly-α emission of H I, which are the most efficient cooling mechanisms currently recognized in the upper atmospheres of hot Jupiters. The results show that the emissions of C, N, O and their ions are strong non-linear functions of environmental parameters (temperature, density, etc.) and are likely to be efficient cooling mechanisms in the upper atmospheres of close-in exoplanets.
Two assumptions are typically made when radar echo signals from precipitation are analyzed to determine the micro-physical parameters of raindrops: (1) the raindrops are assumed to be spherical; (2) multiple scattering effects are ignored. Radar cross sections (RCS) are usually calculated using Rayleigh's scattering equation with the simple addition method in the radar meteorological equation. We investigate the extent to which consideration of the effects of multiple scattering and of the non-spherical shapes within actual raindrop swarms would result in RCS values significantly different from those obtained by conventional analytical methods. First, we establish spherical and non-spherical raindrop models, with Gamma, JD, JT, and MP size distributions, respectively. We then use XFDTD software to calculate the radar cross sections of the above raindrop models at the S, C, X and Ku radar bands. Our XFDTD results are then compared to RCS values calculated by the Rayleigh approximation with simple addition methods. We find that: (1) RCS values calculated using multiple scattering XFDTD software differ significantly from those calculated by the simple addition method at the same band for the same model. In particular, for the spherical raindrop models, the relative differences in RCS values between the methods range from a maximum of 89.649% to a minimum of 43.701%; for the non-spherical raindrop models, the relative differences range from a maximum of 85.868% to a minimum of 11.875%. (2) Our multiple scattering XFDTD results, compared to those obtained from the Rayleigh formula, again differ at all four size distributions, by relative errors of 169.522%, 37.176%, 216.455%, and 63.428%, respectively. When nonspherical effects are considered, differences in RCS values between our XFDTD calculations and Rayleigh calculations are smaller; at the above four size distributions the relative errors are 0.213%, 0.171%, 7.683%, and 44.514%, respectively. RCS values computed by considering multiple scattering and non-spherical particle shapes are larger than Rayleigh RCS results, at all of the above four size distributions; the relative errors between the two methods are 220.673%, 129.320%, 387.240%, and 186.613%, respectively. After changing the arrangement of particles at four size distributions in the case of multiple scattering effect and non-spherical effect, the RCS values of Arrangement 2 are smaller than those of Arrangement 1; the relative errors for Arrangement 2, compared to Rayleigh, are 60.558%, 76.263%, 85.941%, 64.852%, respectively. We have demonstrated that multiple scattering, non-spherical particle shapes, and the arrangement within particle swarms all affect the calculation of RCS values. The largest influence appears to be that of the multiple scattering effect. Consideration of particle shapes appears to have the least influence on computed RCS values. We conclude that multiple scattering effects must be considered in practical meteorological detection.
Of the world's oceans, the Pacific has the most abundant distribution of seamount trails, oceanic plateaus and hot spots, and has the longest fracture zones. However, little is known of their thermal structures due to difficulties of heat flow measurement and interpretation, and in inferring thermal anomalies from low-resolution seismic velocities. Using recently published global magnetic models, we present the first independent constraint on Pacific geothermal state and mantle dynamics, by applying a fractal magnetization inversion model to magnetic anomaly data. Warm thermal anomalies are inferred for all known active hot spots, most seamount trails, some major fracture zones, and oceanic lithosphere between ~100 and ~140 Ma in age. While most Curie points are among the shallowest in the zone roughly bounded by the 20 Ma isochrons, abnormally deep Curie points are found along nearly all ridge crests in the Pacific, related to patchy, long-wavelength and large-amplitude magnetic anomalies that are most likely caused by prevailing magmatic or hydrothermal processes. Many large contrasts in the thermal evolution between the Pacific and North Atlantic support much stronger hydrothermal circulation occurring in Pacific lithospheres younger than ~60 Ma, which may have disguised from surface heat flow any deep thermal signatures of volcanic structures. Yet, at depths of the Curie points, our model argues for warmer Pacific lithosphere for crustal ages older than ~15 Ma, given a slightly higher spatial correlation of magnetization in the Pacific than in the North Atlantic.
Characteristic slip and characteristic earthquake models have been proposed for several decades. Such models have been supported recently by high-resolution offset measurements. These models suggest that slip along a fault recurs via similarly sized, large earthquakes. The inter-event strain accumulation rate (ratio of earthquake slip and preceding interseismic time period) is used here to test the characteristic earthquake model by linking the slip and timing of past earthquakes on the Haiyuan Fault. We address how the inter-event strain accumulation rate varies over multiple seismic cycles by combining paleoearthquake studies with high-resolution airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data to document the timing and size of paleoearthquake displacements along the western and middle segments of the Haiyuan Fault. Our observations encompass 5 earthquake cycles. We find significant variations over time and space along the Haiyuan Fault. We observe that on the middle segment of the Haiyuan Fault the rates slow down or increase as an anti-correlated function of the rates of preceding earthquakes. Here, we propose that the inter-event strain accumulation rates on the middle segment of the Haiyuan Fault are oscillating both spatially and temporally. However, along the western segment, the inter-event strain accumulation rate is both spatially and temporally steady, which is in agreement with quasi-periodic and slip-predictable models. Finally, we propose that different fault segments within a single fault zone may behave according to different earthquake models.
The Emeishan large igneous province (hereafter named by its acronym ELIP) is the first accepted large igneous region in China. The current study tries to reconstruct the density structure of the crust in this region. For this purpose, we conducted the gravity survey along an 800-km-long profile, which stretched laterally along the latitude 27°N from Lijiang (Yunnan province) to Guiyang (Guizhou province). The fieldwork included 338 gravity measurements distributed from the inner zone to the outer zone of the mantle plume head. After a series of gravity reductions, we calculated the Bouguer gravity anomaly and then constructed the density model for ELIP by iterative forward modeling from an initial density model tightly constrained by wide-angle seismic reflection data. The topography of the Moho, here physically interpreted as a density discontinuity of ~0.4 g·cm–3, gradually rises from the inner zone (~50 km deep) to the outer zone (~40 km), describes a thicker crust in the inner zone than in any other segment of the profile and largely reproduces the shape of the Bouguer gravity anomaly curve. Both the Bouguer gravity and the density structure show significant differences with respect to the inner zone and the other two zones of ELIP according to the commonly accepted partition of the Emeishan area. A thicker and denser middle-lower crust seems to be the main feature of the western section of the profile, which is likely related to its mafic magmatic composition due to magmatic underplating of the Permian mantle plume.