ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

2020 Vol.4(6)

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Solar control of CO2 + ultraviolet doublet emission on Mars
ZiChuan Li, Jun Cui, Jing Li, XiaoShu Wu, JiaHao Zhong, FaYu Jiang
2020, 4(6): 543-549. doi: 10.26464/epp2020064
The \begin{document}$ {\rm{CO}}_2^+$\end{document} ultraviolet doublet (UVD) emission near 289 nm is an important feature of dayside airglow emission from planetary upper atmospheres. In this study, we analyzed the brightness profiles of \begin{document}$ {\rm{CO}}_2^+$\end{document} UVD emission on Mars by using the extensive observations made by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph on board the recent Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Strong solar cycle and solar zenith angle variations in peak emission intensity and altitude were revealed by the data: (1) Both the peak intensity and altitude increase with increasing solar activity, and (2) the peak intensity decreases, whereas the peak altitude increases, with increasing solar zenith angle. These observations can be favorably interpreted by the solar-driven scenario combined with the fact that photoionization and photoelectron impact ionization are the two most important processes responsible for the production of excited-state \begin{document}$ {\rm{CO}}_2^+$\end{document} and consequently the intensity of \begin{document}$ {\rm{CO}}_2^+$\end{document} UVD emission. Despite this, we propose that an extra driver, presumably related to the complicated variation in the background atmosphere, such as the occurrence of global dust storms, is required to fully interpret the observations. In general, our analysis suggests that the \begin{document}$ {\rm{CO}}_2^+$\end{document} UVD emission is a useful diagnostic of the variability of the dayside Martian atmosphere under the influences of both internal and external drivers.
The diurnal transport of atmospheric water vapor during major dust storms on Mars based on the Mars Climate Database, version 5.3
Jing Li, ZhaoPeng Wu, Tao Li, Xi Zhang, Jun Cui
2020, 4(6): 550-564. doi: 10.26464/epp2020062
In recent studies of the Martian atmosphere, strong diurnal variation in the dust was discovered in the southern hemisphere during major dust storms, which provides strong evidence that the commonly recognized meridional transport process is driven by thermal tides. This process, when coupled with deep convection, could be an important part of the short-term atmospheric dynamics of water escape. However, the potential of this process to alter the horizontal distribution of moist air has not been systematically investigated. In this work, we conducted pre-research on the horizontal transport of water vapor associated with the migrating diurnal tide (DW1) at 50 Pa in the upper troposphere during major dust storms based on the Mars Climate Database (MCD) 5.3, a state-of-the-art database for Martian atmospheric research that has been validated as simulating the relevant short-period atmospheric dynamics well. We found westward-propagating diurnal patterns in the global water vapor front during nearly all the major dust storms from Martian years (MYs) 24 to 32. Statistical and correlation analyses showed that the diurnal transport of water vapor during global and A-season regional dust storms is dominated by the DW1. The effect of the tidal transport of water vapor varies with the types of dust storms in different seasons. During regional dust storms, the tidal transport induces only limited diurnal motion of the water vapor. However, the horizontal tidal wind tends to increase the abundance of daytime water vapor at mid- to low latitudes during the MY 28 southern summer global dust storm while decreasing it during the MY 25 southern spring global dust storm. The tidal transport process during these two global dust storms can induce opposite effects on water escape.
Numerical simulation of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in ionospheric irregularities
ChunHua Jiang, LeHui Wei, GuoBin Yang, Chen Zhou, ZhengYu Zhao
2020, 4(6): 565-570. doi: 10.26464/epp2020059
The characteristics of high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation can be affected when EM waves propagate in the ionosphere. When ionospheric irregularities appear in the ionosphere, they can have a serious impact on the propagation of HF EM waves. In this study, the propagation of HF EM waves in ionospheric irregularities was investigated by numerical simulation. First, a two-dimensional model of plasma bubbles was used to produce ionospheric irregularities in the ionosphere. A ray-tracing method was then utilized to simulate the propagation of HF radio waves in these ionospheric irregularities. Results showed that the propagation of HF radio waves in the ionosphere was more complex in ionospheric irregularities than without ionospheric irregularities. In addition, corresponding ionograms were synthesized by radio rays propagated in the ionosphere with these irregularities. The synthesized ionograms were then compared with the experimental ionograms recorded by an ionosonde. Results showed that spread F could be simulated on the ionograms when ionospheric irregularities occurred in the ionosphere. This result was consistent with the ionosonde observations.
On the radar frequency dependence of polar mesosphere summer echoes
ShuCan Ge, HaiLong Li, Lin Meng, MaoYan Wang, Tong Xu, Safi Ullah, Abdur Rauf, Abdel Hannachid
2020, 4(6): 571-578. doi: 10.26464/epp2020061
Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSEs) are very strong radar echoes in the polar mesopause in local summer. Here we present the frequency dependence of the volume reflectivity and the effect of energetic particle precipitation on modulated PMSEs by using PMSEs observations carried out by European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) heating equipment simultaneously with very high frequency (VHF) radar and ultra high frequency (UHF) radar on 12 July 2007. According to the experimental observations, the PMSEs occurrence rate at VHF was much higher than that at UHF, and the altitude of the PMSEs maximum observed at VHF was higher than that at UHF. Overlapping regions were observed by VHF radar between high energetic particle precipitation and the PMSEs. In addition, high-frequency heating had a very limited impact on PMSEs when the UHF electron density was enhanced because of energetic particle precipitation. In addition, an updated qualitative method was used to study the relationship between volume reflectivity and frequency. The volume reflectivity was found to be inversely proportional to the fourth power of radar frequency. The theoretical and experimental results provide a definitive data foundation for further analysis and investigation of the physical mechanism of PMSEs.
Preliminary experimental results by the prototype of Sanya Incoherent Scatter Radar
XinAn Yue, WeiXing Wan, Han Xiao, LingQi Zeng, ChangHai Ke, BaiQi Ning, Feng Ding, BiQiang Zhao, Lin Jin, Chen Li, MingYuan Li, JunYi Wang, HongLian Hao, Ning Zhang
2020, 4(6): 579-587. doi: 10.26464/epp2020063
In the past decades, the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) has been demonstrated to be one of the most powerful instruments for ionosphere monitoring. The Institute of Geology and Geophysics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences was founded to build a state-of-the-art phased-array ISR at Sanya (18.3°N, 109.6°E), a low-latitude station on Hainan Island, named the Sanya ISR (SYISR). As a first step, a prototype radar system consisting of eight subarrays (SYISR-8) was built to reduce the technical risk of producing the entire large array. In this work, we have summarized the preliminary experimental results based on the SYISR-8. The amplitude and phase among 256 channels were first calibrated through an embedded internal monitoring network. The mean oscillation of the amplitude and phase after calibration were about 1 dB and 5°, respectively, which met the basic requirements. The beam directivity was confirmed by crossing screen of the International Space Station. The SYISR-8 was further used to detect the tropospheric wind profile and meteors. The derived winds were evaluated by comparison with independent radiosonde and balloon-based GPS measurements. The SYISR-8 was able to observe several typical meteor echoes, such as the meteor head echo, range-spread trail echo, and specular trail echo. These results confirmed the validity and reliability of the SYISR-8 system, thereby reducing the technical risk of producing the entire large array of the SYISR to some extent.
Evidence of X-mode heating suppressing O-mode heating
Ting Feng, Chen Zhou, Xiang Wang, MoRan Liu, ZhengYu Zhao
2020, 4(6): 588-597. doi: 10.26464/epp2020068
In this study, we present three experiments carried out at the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association) heating facility on October 29 and 30, 2015. The results from the first experiment showed overshoot during the O-mode heating period. The second experiment, which used cold-start X-mode heating, showed the generation of parametric decay instability, whereas overshoot was not observed. The third experiment used power-stepped X-mode heating with noticeable O-mode wave leakage. Parametric decay instability and oscillating two-stream instability were generated at the O-mode reflection height without the overshoot effect, which implies suppression of the thermal parametric instability with X-mode heating. We propose that the electron temperature increased because X-mode heating below the upper hybrid height decreased the growth rate of the thermal parametric instability.
On the loss mechanisms of radiation belt electron dropouts during the 12 September 2014 geomagnetic storm
Xin Ma, Zheng Xiang, BinBin Ni, Song Fu, Xing Cao, Man Hua, DeYu Guo, YingJie Guo, XuDong Gu, ZeYuan Liu, Qi Zhu
2020, 4(6): 598-610. doi: 10.26464/epp2020060
Radiation belt electron dropouts indicate electron flux decay to the background level during geomagnetic storms, which is commonly attributed to the effects of wave-induced pitch angle scattering and magnetopause shadowing. To investigate the loss mechanisms of radiation belt electron dropouts triggered by a solar wind dynamic pressure pulse event on 12 September 2014, we comprehensively analyzed the particle and wave measurements from Van Allen Probes. The dropout event was divided into three periods: before the storm, the initial phase of the storm, and the main phase of the storm. The electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) and electron flux dropouts during the initial and main phases of this storm were investigated, and the evolution of the radial profile of electron phase space density (PSD) and the (μ, K) dependence of electron PSD dropouts (where μ, K, and L* are the three adiabatic invariants) were analyzed. The energy-independent decay of electrons at L > 4.5 was accompanied by butterfly PADs, suggesting that the magnetopause shadowing process may be the major loss mechanism during the initial phase of the storm at L > 4.5. The features of electron dropouts and 90°-peaked PADs were observed only for >1 MeV electrons at L < 4, indicating that the wave-induced scattering effect may dominate the electron loss processes at the lower L-shell during the main phase of the storm. Evaluations of the (μ, K) dependence of electron PSD drops and calculations of the minimum electron resonant energies of H+-band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves support the scenario that the observed PSD drop peaks around L* = 3.9 may be caused mainly by the scattering of EMIC waves, whereas the drop peaks around L* = 4.6 may result from a combination of EMIC wave scattering and outward radial diffusion.
Proton belt variations traced back to Fengyun-1C satellite observations
ChunQin Wang, Zheng Chang, XiaoXin Zhang, GuoHong Shen, ShenYi Zhang, YueQiang Sun, JiaWei Li, Tao Jing, HuanXin Zhang, Ying Sun, BinQuan Zhang
2020, 4(6): 611-618. doi: 10.26464/epp2020069
We used historical data to trace trapped protons observed by the Fengyun-1C (FY-1C) satellite at low Earth orbits (~800 km) and chose data at 5–10 MeV, 10–40 MeV, 40–100 MeV, and ~100–300 MeV from 25 March to 18 April 2000 to analyze the proton variations. Only one isolated strong storm was associated with a solar proton event during this period, and there was no influence from previous proton variations. Complex dynamic phenomena of proton trapping and loss were affected by this disturbance differently depending on the energy and L location. The flux of 5–10 MeV protons increased and created new trapping with a maximum at L ~2.0, and the peak flux was significantly higher than that at the center of the South Atlantic Anomaly. However, at higher L, the flux showed obvious loss, with retreat of the outer boundary from L ~2.7 to L ~2.5. The increase in the 10–40 MeV proton flux was similar to that of the 5–10 MeV flux; however, the peak flux intensity was lower than that at the center of the South Atlantic Anomaly. The loss of the 10–40 MeV proton flux was closer to the Earth side, and the outer boundary was reduced from L ~2.3 to L ~2.25. For the higher energy protons of 40–100 MeV and 100–300 MeV, no new trapping was found. Loss of the 40–100 MeV protons was observed, and the outer boundary shifted from L ~2.0 to L ~1.9. Loss was not obvious for the 100–400 MeV protons, which were distributed within L < 1.8. New proton trapping was more likely to be created at lower energy in the region of solar proton injection by the strong magnetic storm, whereas loss occurred in a wide energy range and reduced the outer boundary on the Earth side. Similar dynamic changes were observed by the NOAA-15 satellite in the same period, but the FY-1C satellite observed more complex changes in lower energy protons. These results revealed that the dynamic behavior of protons with different L-shells was due to differences in the pitch angle. Possible mechanisms related to new trapping and loss are also discussed. These mechanisms are very important for understanding the behavior of the proton belt in the coming solar cycle.
The semiannual variation of transpolar arc incidence and its relationship to the Russell–McPherron effect
Tao Tang, Jun Yang, QuanQi Shi, AnMin Tian, Shi-Chen Bai, Alexander William Degeling, SuiYan Fu, JingXian Liu, Tong Shao, ZeYuan Sun
2020, 4(6): 619-626. doi: 10.26464/epp2020066
Earth’s aurora is a luminescent phenomenon generated by the interaction between magnetospheric precipitating particles and the upper atmosphere; it plays an important role in magnetosphere–ionosphere (M-I) coupling. The transpolar arc (TPA) is a discrete auroral arc distributed in the noon-midnight direction poleward of the auroral oval and connects the dayside to the nightside sectors of the auroral oval. Studying the seasonal variation of TPA events can help us better understand the long-term variation of the interaction between the solar wind, the magnetosphere, and M-I coupling. However, a statistical study of the seasonal variation of TPA incidence has not previously been carried out. In this paper, we have identified 532 TPA events from the IMAGE database (2000–2005) and the Polar database (1996–2002), and calculated the incidence of TPA events for different months. We find a semiannual variation in TPA incidence. Clear peaks in the incidence of TPAs occur in March and September; a less pronounced peak appears in November. We also examine seasonal variation in the northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) over the same time period. The intensity and occurrence rate of the northward IMF exhibit patterns similar to that of the TPA incidence. Having studied IMF Bz before TPA onset, we find that strong and steady northward IMF conditions are favorable for TPA formation. We suggest that the semiannual variation observed in TPA incidence may be related to the Russell–McPherron (R-M) effect due to the projection effect of the IMF By under northward IMF conditions.
Sharpness of the paired 660-km discontinuity beneath the Izu-Bonin area
LiMing Wang, XiaoBo He
2020, 4(6): 627-638. doi: 10.26464/epp2020067
The 660-km discontinuity that separates the Earth's upper and lower mantle has primarily been attributed to phase changes in olivine and other minerals. Resolving the sharpness is essential for predicting the composition of the mantle and for understanding its dynamic effects. In this study, we used S-to-P conversions from the 660-km interface, termed S660P, arriving in the P-wave coda from one earthquake in the Izu–Bonin subduction zone recorded by stations in Alaska. The S660P signals were of high quality, providing us an unprecedented opportunity to resolve the sharpness of the discontinuity. Our study demonstrated, based on the impedance contrast given by the IASP91 model, that the discontinuity has a transitional thickness of ~5 km. In addition, we observed a prominent arrival right after the S660P, which was best explained by S-to-P conversions from a deeper discontinuity at a depth of ~720 km with a transitional thickness of ~20 km, termed S720P. The 720-km discontinuity is most likely the result of a phase transition from majoritic garnet to perovskite in the segregated oceanic crust (mainly the mid-oceanic ridge basalt composition) at the uppermost lower mantle beneath this area. The inferred phase changes are also consistent with predictions from mineral physics experiments.
Refinement of Bouguer anomalies derived from the EGM2008 model, impact on gravimetric signatures in mountainous region: Case of Cameroon Volcanic Line, Central Africa
Paul Gautier Kamto, Cyrille Mezoue Adiang, Severin Nguiya, Joseph Kamguia, Loudi Yap
2020, 4(6): 639-650. doi: 10.26464/epp2020065
Global geopotential models have not included the very high frequencies of the Earth’s external gravity field. This is called omission error. This omission error becomes more important in mountainous areas (areas with highly variable topography). The work reported here consists in reducing the omission error in measurements of Bouguer gravity anomalies, by refining the global geopotential model EGM2008 using the spectral enhancement method. This method consists in computing the residual terrain effects and then coupling them to the gravimetric signal of the global geopotential model. To compute the residual terrain effects, we used the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) technique. To refine it required a reference surface (ETOPO1) developed up to degree 2190 (the maximum degree of the EGM2008 model) and a detailed elevation model (AW3D30). Computation was performed with the TC program of the GRAVSOFT package. The topography of the study area was assumed to have a constant density of 2670 kg/m3. For the inner and outer zones, the respective integration radii of 10 km and 200 km have been chosen. We obtained very important RTM values ranging from −53.59 to 34.79 mGal. These values were added to the gravity anomalies grid of the EGM2008 model to improve accuracy at high frequencies. On a part of the Cameroon Volcanic Line and its surroundings (mountainous area), we made a comparison between the residual Bouguer anomalies before and after refinement. We report differences ranging from −37.40 to 26.40 mGal. We conclude that the impact of omission error on gravimetric signatures is observed especially in areas with high variable topography, such as on the Cameroon Volcanic Line and around the localities of Takamanda, Essu, Dumbo, and Ngambe. This finding illustrates the great influence that topography has on accurate measurement of these gravity anomalies, and thus why topography must be taken into account. We can conclude that in preparing a global geopotential model, a high resolution DTM must be used to decrease the omission error: the degree of expansion has to increase in order to take the higher frequencies into account. The refined Bouguer anomalies grid presented here can be used in addition to terrestrial gravity anomalies in the study area, especially in mountainous areas where gravimetric data are very sparse or non-existent.