Advanced Search

EPP

地球与行星物理

ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: Xi Zhang, Peng Wang, Tao Xu, Yun Chen, José Badal, JiWen Teng, 2018: Density structure of the crust in the Emeishan large igneous province revealed by the Lijiang- Guiyang gravity profile, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 74-81. doi: 10.26464/epp2018007

2018, 2(1): 74-81. doi: 10.26464/epp2018007

SOLID EARTH: GEODESY AND GRAVITY

Density structure of the crust in the Emeishan large igneous province revealed by the Lijiang- Guiyang gravity profile

1. 

State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China

2. 

Institute of Earthquake Science, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100036, China

3. 

CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

4. 

Physics of the Earth, Sciences B, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain

Corresponding author: Xi Zhang, zhangxi@mail.iggcas.ac.cn

Received Date: 2017-06-26
Web Publishing Date: 2018-01-01

The Emeishan large igneous province (hereafter named by its acronym ELIP) is the first accepted large igneous region in China. The current study tries to reconstruct the density structure of the crust in this region. For this purpose, we conducted the gravity survey along an 800-km-long profile, which stretched laterally along the latitude 27°N from Lijiang (Yunnan province) to Guiyang (Guizhou province). The fieldwork included 338 gravity measurements distributed from the inner zone to the outer zone of the mantle plume head. After a series of gravity reductions, we calculated the Bouguer gravity anomaly and then constructed the density model for ELIP by iterative forward modeling from an initial density model tightly constrained by wide-angle seismic reflection data. The topography of the Moho, here physically interpreted as a density discontinuity of ~0.4 g·cm–3, gradually rises from the inner zone (~50 km deep) to the outer zone (~40 km), describes a thicker crust in the inner zone than in any other segment of the profile and largely reproduces the shape of the Bouguer gravity anomaly curve. Both the Bouguer gravity and the density structure show significant differences with respect to the inner zone and the other two zones of ELIP according to the commonly accepted partition of the Emeishan area. A thicker and denser middle-lower crust seems to be the main feature of the western section of the profile, which is likely related to its mafic magmatic composition due to magmatic underplating of the Permian mantle plume.

Key words: Bouguer gravity, seismic reflection data, forward modeling, crustal density structure, Emeishan large igneous province, South China

Ali, J. R., Thompson, G. M., Song, X., and Wang, Y. (2002). Emeishan Basalts (SW China) and the ‘end-Guadalupian’ crisis: Magnetobiostratigraphic constraints. Journal of the Geological Society, 159(1), 21–29. https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-764901086. doi: 10.1144/0016-764901086

Chen, Y., Xu, Y., Xu, T., Si, S., Liang, X., Tian, X., Deng, Y., Chen, L., Wang, P., Xu, Y., et al. (2015). Magmatic underplating and crustal growth in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China, revealed by a passive seismic experiment. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 432, 103–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpgl.2015.09.048. doi: 10.1016/j.jpgl.2015.09.048

Christensen, N. I., and Mooney, W. D. (1995). Seismic velocity structure and composition of the continental crust: A global view. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 100(B6), 9761–9788. https://doi.org/10.1029/95JB00259. doi: 10.1029/95JB00259

Chung, S. L., and Jahn, B. M. (1995). Plume-lithosphere interaction in generation of the Emeishan flood basalts at the Permian-Triassic boundary. Geology, 23(10), 889–892. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0889:PLIIGO>2.3.CO;2. doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0889:PLIIGO>2.3.CO;2

Chung, S. L., Lee, T. Y., Lo, C. H., Wang, P. L., Chen, C. Y., Nguyen, T. Y., Tran, T. H., and Wu, G. Y. (1997). Intraplate extension prior to continental extrusion along the Ailao Shan–Red River shear zone. Geology, 25(4), 311–314. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1997)025<0311:IEPTCE>2.3.CO;2. doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1997)025<0311:IEPTCE>2.3.CO;2

Chung, S. L., Jahn, B. M., Wu, G. Y., Lo, C. H., and Cong, B. L. (1998). The Emeishan flood basalt in SW China: A mantle plume initiation model and its connection with continental break-up and mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary. In M. F. J. Flower, et al. (Eds.), Mantle Dynamics and Plate Interaction in East Asia. Washington, DC: AGU, 47–58.222

Courtillot, V. E., and Renne, P. R. (2003). On the ages of flood basalt events. Comptes Rendus Geosciencee, 335(1), 113–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1631-0713(03)00006-3. doi: 10.1016/S1631-0713(03)00006-3

Deng, Y. F., Zhang, Z. J., Badal, J., and Fan, W. M. (2014a). 3-D density structure under South China constrained by seismic velocity and gravity data. Tectonophysics, 627, 159–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2013.07.032. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2013.07.032

Deng, Y. F., Zhang, Z. J., Mooney, W., Badal, J., Fan, W. M., and Zhong, Q. (2014b). Mantle origin of the Emeishan large igneous province (South China) from the analysis of residual gravity anomalies. Lithos, 204, 4–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2014.02.008. doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2014.02.008

Deng, Y. F., Chen, Y., Wang, P., Essa, K. S., Xu, T., Liang, X. F., and Badal, J. (2016). Magmatic underplating beneath the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (South China) revealed by the COMGRA-ELIP experiment. Tectonophysics, 672–673, 16–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.01.039. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2016.01.039

Fan, W. M., Wang, Y. J., Peng, T. P., Miao, L. C., and Guo, F. (2004). Ar-Ar and U-Pb geochronology of late Paleozoic basalts in western Guangxi and its constraints on the eruption age of Emeishan basalt magmatism. Chinese Science Bulletin, 49(21), 2318–2327. https://doi.org/10.1360/04wd0201. doi: 10.1360/04wd0201

Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., Smith, A. G., Bleeker, W., and Lourens, L. J. (2004). A new geologic time scale, with special reference to Precambrian and Neogene. Episodes, 27(2), 83–100.

Hanski, E., Walker, R. J., Huhma, H., Polyakov, G. V., Balykin, Hoa T. T., and Phuong, N. T. (2004). Origin of the Permian-Triassic komatiites, northwestern Vietnam. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 147(4), 453–469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-004-0567-1. doi: 10.1007/s00410-004-0567-1

He, B., Xu, Y. G., Chung, S. L., Xiao, L., and Wang, Y. M. (2003). Sedimentary evidence for a rapid, kilometer-scale crustal doming prior to the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 213(3-4), 391–405. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00323-6. doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00323-6

He, B., Xu, Y. G., Huang, X. L., Luo, Z. Y., Shi, Y. R., Yang, Q. J., and Yu, S. Y. (2007). Age and duration of the Emeishan flood volcanism, SW China: Geochemistry and SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of silicic ignimbrites, post-volcanic Xuanwei Formation and clay tuff at the Chaotian section. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 255(3-4), 306–323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpgl.2006.12.021. doi: 10.1016/j.jpgl.2006.12.021

Huang, K. N., and Opdyke, N. D. (1998). Magnetostratigraphic investigations on an Emeishan basalt section in western Guizhou province, China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 163(1-4), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(98)00169-1. doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(98)00169-1

Liu, Z., Tian, X. B., Chen, Y., Xu, T., Bai, Z. M., Liang, X. F., Iqbal, J., and Xu, Y. G. (2017). Unusually thickened crust beneath the Emeishan large igneous province detected by virtual deep seismic sounding. Tectonophysics, 721, 387–394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2017.10.009. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2017.10.009

Lo, C. H., Chung, S. L., Lee, T. Y., and Wu, G. Y. (2002). Age of the Emeishan flood magmatism and relations to Permian-Triassic boundary events. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 198(3-4), 449–458. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00535-6. doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00535-6

Pavlis, N. K., Holmes, S. A., Kenyon, S. C., and Factor, J. K. (2008). An earth gravitational model to degree 2160: EGM2008. In EGU General Assembly 2008. Vienna, Austria: EGU, 13–18.222

Pavlis, N. K., Holmes, S. A., Kenyon, S. C., and Factor, J. K. (2012). The development and evaluation of the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008). Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(B4), B04406. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008916. doi: 10.1029/2011JB008916

Tapponnier, P., Lacassin, R., Leloup, P. H., Schärer, U., Zhong, D. L., Wu, H. W., Liu, X. H., Ji, S. C., Zhang, L. S., and Zhong, J. Y. (1990). The Ailao Shan-Red River metamorphic belt: Tertiary left-lateral shear between Indochina and South China. Nature, 343(6257), 431–437. https://doi.org/10.1038/343431a0. doi: 10.1038/343431a0

Wignall, P. B. (2001). Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions. Earth Science Reviews, 53(1-2), 1–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-8252(00)00037-4. doi: 10.1016/S0012-8252(00)00037-4

Xiao, L., Xu, Y. G., Chung, S. L., He, B., and Mei, H. J. (2003). Chemostratigraphic correlation of upper permian lavas succession from Yunnan Province, China: Extent of the Emeishan large Igneous Province. International Geology Review, 45(8), 753–766. https://doi.org/10.2747/0020-6814.45.8.753. doi: 10.2747/0020-6814.45.8.753

Xiao, L., Xu, Y. G., Xu, J. F., He, B., and Franco, P. (2004). Chemostratigraphy of flood basalts in the Garzê-Litang Region and Zongza Block: Implications for western extension of the Emeishan large igneous Province, SW China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 78(1), 61–67. https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1000-9515.2004.01.008. doi: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-9515.2004.01.008

Xu, T., Zhang, Z. J., Liu, B. F., Chen Y., Zhang, M. H., Tian X. B., Xu, Y. G., and Teng, J. W. (2015). Crustal velocity structure in the Emeishan large igneous province and evidence of the Permian mantle plume activity. Science China Earth Sciences, 58(7), 1133–1147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-015-5094-6. doi: 10.1007/s11430-015-5094-6

Xu, Y. G., Chung, S. L., Jahn, B. M., and Wu, G. Y. (2001). Petrologic and geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis of Permian-Triassic Emeishan flood basalts in southwestern China. Lithos, 58(3-4), 145–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-4937(01)00055-X. doi: 10.1016/S0024-4937(01)00055-X

Xu, Y. G., He, B., Chung, S. L., Menzies, M. A., and Frey, F. A. (2004). Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical consequences of plume involvement in the Emeishan flood-basalt province. Geology, 30(10), 917–920. https://doi.org/10.1130/G20602.1. doi: 10.1130/G20602.1

Xu, Y. G., He, B., Huang, X. L., Luo, Z. Y., Chung, S. L., Xiao, L., Zhu, D., Shao, H., Fan, W. M., Xu, J. F., et al. (2007). Identification of mantle plumes in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province. Episodes, 30(1), 32–42.

Zhang, Z. C., Mahoney, J. J., Mao, J. W., and Wang, F. H. (2006). Geochemistry of picritic and associated basalt flows of the western Emeishan flood basalt province, China. Journal of Petrology, 47(10), 1997–2019. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egl034. doi: 10.1093/petrology/egl034

Zhong, Y. T., He, B., Mundil, R., and Xu, Y. G. (2014). CA-TIMS zircon U–Pb dating of felsic ignimbrite from the Binchuan section: Implications for the termination age of Emeishan large igneous province. Lithos, 204, 14–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2014.03.005. doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2014.03.005

Zhou M. F., Malpas J., Song X., Robinson P. T., Sun M., Kennedy, A. K., Lesher C. M., and Keays R. R. (2002). A temporal link between the Emeishan large igneous province (SW China) and the end-Guadalupian mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 196(3-4), 113–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00608-2. doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00608-2

Zhu, J. S., Cai, X. L., Cao, J. M., Gao, D. Z., Zhao, F. Q., Du, Y. S., and Wang, Y. (2005). The Three-Dimensional Structure of Lithosphere and Its Evolution in South China and East China Sea (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House.222

[1]

TianYu Zheng, YongHong Duan, WeiWei Xu, YinShuang Ai, 2017: A seismic model for crustal structure in North China Craton, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 26-34. doi: 10.26464/epp2017004

[2]

XinYan Zhang, ZhiMing Bai, Tao Xu, Rui Gao, QiuSheng Li, Jue Hou, José Badal, 2018: Joint tomographic inversion of first-arrival and reflection traveltimes for recovering 2-D seismic velocity structure with an irregular free surface, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 220-230. doi: 10.26464/epp2018021

[3]

Qiao Wang, JianPing Huang, XueMin Zhang, XuHui Shen, ShiGeng Yuan, Li Zeng, JinBin Cao, 2018: China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite search coil magnetometer data and initial results, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 1-7. doi: 10.26464/epp2018044

[4]

Xiao Xiao, Jiang Wang, Jun Huang, Binlong Ye, 2018: A new approach to study terrestrial yardang geomorphology based on high-resolution data acquired by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs): A showcase of whaleback yardangs in Qaidam Basin, NW China, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 398-405. doi: 10.26464/epp2018037

[5]

Xin Zhou, Gabriele Cambiotti, WenKe Sun, Roberto Sabadini, 2018: Co-seismic slip distribution of the 2011 Tohoku (MW 9.0) earthquake inverted from GPS and space-borne gravimetric data, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 120-138. doi: 10.26464/epp2018013

[6]

TianJun Zhou, Bin Wang, YongQiang Yu, YiMin Liu, WeiPeng Zheng, LiJuan Li, Bo Wu, PengFei Lin, Zhun Guo, WenMin Man, Qing Bao, AnMin Duan, HaiLong Liu, XiaoLong Chen, Bian He, JianDong Li, LiWei Zou, XiaoCong Wang, LiXia Zhang, Yong Sun, WenXia Zhang, 2018: The FGOALS climate system model as a modeling tool for supporting climate sciences: An overview, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 276-291. doi: 10.26464/epp2018026

[7]

JinHai Zhang, ZhenXing Yao, 2017: Exact local refinement using Fourier interpolation for nonuniform-grid modeling, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 58-62. doi: 10.26464/epp2017008

[8]

XuHui Shen, Qiu-Gang Zong, XueMin Zhang, 2018: Introduction to special section on the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite and initial results, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 439-443. doi: 10.26464/epp2018041

[9]

YuXian Wang, XiaoCheng Guo, BinBin Tang, WenYa Li, Chi Wang, 2018: Modeling the Jovian magnetosphere under an antiparallel interplanetary magnetic field from a global MHD simulation, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 303-309. doi: 10.26464/epp2018028

[10]

Md Moklesur Rahman, Ling Bai, 2018: Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Nepal using multiple seismic source models, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 327-341. doi: 10.26464/epp2018030

[11]

Zhi Wei, LianFeng Zhao, XiaoBi Xie, JinLai Hao, ZhenXing Yao, 2018: Seismic characteristics of the 15 February 2013 bolide explosion in Chelyabinsk, Russia, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 420-429. doi: 10.26464/epp2018039

[12]

Rui Yan, YiBing Guan, XuHui Shen, JianPing Huang, XueMin Zhang, Chao Liu, DaPeng Liu, 2018: The Langmuir Probe Onboard CSES: data inversion analysis method and first results, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 1-10. doi: 10.26464/epp2018046

[13]

HaiLin Du, Xu Zhang, LiSheng Xu, WanPeng Feng, Lei Yi, Peng Li, 2018: Source complexity of the 2016 MW7.8 Kaikoura (New Zealand) earthquake revealed from teleseismic and InSAR data, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 310-326. doi: 10.26464/epp2018029

[14]

QingHui Cui, WenLan Li, GuoHui Li, MaiNing Ma, XiaoYu Guan, YuanZe Zhou, 2018: Seismic detection of the X-discontinuity beneath the Ryukyu subduction zone from the SdP conversion phase, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 208-219. doi: 10.26464/epp2018020

[15]

XiaoZhong Tong, JianXin Liu, AiYong Li, 2018: Two-dimensional regularized inversion of AMT data based on rotation invariant of Central impedance tensor, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 430-437. doi: 10.26464/epp2018040

Article Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract views()
  • HTML views()
  • Cited by(0)
Catalog

Figures And Tables

Density structure of the crust in the Emeishan large igneous province revealed by the Lijiang- Guiyang gravity profile

Xi Zhang, Peng Wang, Tao Xu, Yun Chen, José Badal, JiWen Teng