Advanced Search



ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: Elizabeth A. Silber, 2018: Deployment of a short-term geophysical field survey to monitor acoustic signals associated with the Windsor Hum, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 351-358. doi: 10.26464/epp2018032

2018, 2(4): 351-358. doi: 10.26464/epp2018032


Deployment of a short-term geophysical field survey to monitor acoustic signals associated with the Windsor Hum


Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912, USA


Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada

Corresponding author: Elizabeth A. Silber,

Received Date: 2018-04-24
Web Publishing Date: 2018-07-01

The Hum is a widespread phenomenon, reported in many parts of the world. It manifests itself in the form of a hum, rumble and pulsing, often felt as a sensation more than an audible sound. Starting in 2011, residents of Windsor, Ontario, Canada started reporting intermittent low frequency sound, widely referred to as the Hum (and dubbed the Windsor Hum). This report outlines the deployment of a short term geophysical field survey, performed during 2013 in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, aimed at monitoring the airwave signals associated with the Windsor Hum. The summary of the low frequency sound array deployment is presented and discussed.

Key words: infrasound, noise, low frequency, the Hum, atmosphere

ANSI. (1994). ANSI S1.1.-1994 American National Standard Acoustical Terminology. New York, NY, USA: Acoustical Society of America.222

Backteman, O., Köhler, J., and Sjöberg, L. (1983). Infrasound—tutorial and review: Part 1. J. Low Freq. Noise, Vib. Active Control, 2(3), 1–31.

Beer, T. (1974). Atmospheric Waves. New York: Halsted Press and London: Adam Hilger, Ltd.222

Bent, A. L., and Withgold, C. R. D. (2011). Seismic investigation of the ‘Rumblings’ in Windsor (pp. 25). Geological Survey Canada, Open File 6999.222

Berglund, B., Berglund, U., and Lindvall, T. (1984). Adverse effects of community noise: research needs. Oslo, Norway: Nordic Council of Ministers.222

Berglund, B., Hassmén, P., and Job, R. F. (1996). Sources and effects of low–frequency noise.J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 99(5), 2985–3002.

Berglund, B., Lindvall, T., and Schwela, D. H. (1999). Guidelines for community noise. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.222

Blazier, W. E. Jr. (1981). Revised noise criteria for application in the acoustical design and rating of HVAC systems. Noise Control Eng., 16(2), 64–73.

Brachet, N., Brown, D., Le Bras, R., Cansi, Y., Mialle, P., and Coyne, J. (2010). Monitoring the earth’s atmosphere with the global IMS infrasound network. In A. Le Pichon, et al. (Eds.), Infrasound Monitoring for Atmospheric Studies (pp. 77–118). Dordrecht: Springer.

Bryan, M. E. (1976). Low frequency noise annoyance. In W. Tempest (Ed.), Infrasound and Low Frequency Vibration. London: Academic Press.222

Bullen, R. B., Hede, A. J., and Job, R. F. S. (1991). Community reaction to noise from an artillery range. Noise Control Eng. J., 37(3), 115–128.

Cansi, Y. (1995). An automatic seismic event processing for detection and location: The P.M.C.C. method. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(9), 1021–1024.

Christie, D. R., and Campus, P. (2010). The IMS infrasound network: design and establishment of infrasound stations. In A. Le Pichon, et al. (Eds.), Infrasound Monitoring for Atmospheric Studies (pp. 29–75). Dordrecht: Springer.

Cohen, S., and Weinstein, N. (1981). Nonauditory effects of noise on behavior and health. J. Social Issues, 37(1), 36–70.

Cowan, J. P. (2003). The Kokomo hum investigation. Acentech Report No. 615411. Cambridge: Acentech, Inc.222

Cowan, J. P. (2008). The results of hum studies in the United States. In Presented at 9th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem. Foxwoods, CT, USA: ICBEN.222

Deming, D. (2004). The hum: An anomalous sound heard around the world. J. Sci. Explor., 18(4), 571–595.

Fields, J. M., and Shepherd, K. P. (2001). An updated catalog of 521 social surveys of residents' reactions to environmental noise (1943-2000). NASA/CR-2001-211257, Hampton: NASA.222

Garces, M. A. (2013). On infrasound standards, Part 1: time, frequency, and energy scaling. InfraMatics, 2(2), 33802.

Harris, M., and Young, C. (1997). MatSeis: a seismic GUI and tool-box for MATLAB. Seism. Res. Lett., 68(2), 267–269.

Hood, R. A., and Leventhall, H. G. (1971). Field measurement of infrasonic noise. Acta Acust. Acust., 25(1), 10–13.

Jauchem, J. R. (1997). Exposure to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency radiation: cardiovascular effects in humans. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 70(1), 9–21.

Job, R. F. S. (1988). Community response to noise: A review of factors influencing the relationship between noise exposure and reaction. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 83(3), 991–1001.

Kraemer, S. D. (1973). Annoyance of low frequency sounds. MSc Thesis. London, UK: Chelsea College.222

Krylov, V. V. (1995). Generation of low-frequency ground vibrations by sound waves propagating in underground gas pipes. J. Low Freq. Noise, Vib. Active Control, 14(3), 143–149.

Le Pichon, A., and Cansi, Y. (2003). PMCC for infrasound data processing. Newsletter, 2. http://inframatics.org222

Leventhall, G., Pelmear, P., and Benton, S. (2003). A review of published research on low frequency noise and its effects. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.222

Leventhall, G. (2005). Still humming. Noise Vib. Worldwide, 36(2), 21–26.

Leventhall, G. (2009). Review: Low Frequency Noise. What we know, what we do not know, and what we would like to know. J. Low Freq. Noise, Vib. Active Control, 28(2), 79-104,

Manley, D. M. J. P., Styles, P., and Scott, J. (2002). Perceptions of the public of low frequency noise. J. Low Freq. Noise, Vib. Active Control, 21(1), 37–44.

Mcquillan, R., and Martin, L. (2001). Mystery of the Largs Hum drones on; MSP calls for executive investigation into low-frequency noise that causes sickness and pain. Glasgow: Herald.222

Mullins, J. H., and Kelly, J. P. (1995). The mystery of the Taos Hum. Echoes, 5(3). (Please Add pages)

Novak, C., Charbonneau, J., and D’Angela, P. (2014). Investigation of the Windsor Hum. University of Windsor Report. Department of Foreign Affairs andInternational Trade.222

Pedersen, C. S., Møller, H., and Waye, K. P. (2008). A detailed study of low-frequency noise complaints. J. Low Freq. Noise, Vib. Active Control, 27(1), 1–33.

Persson, K., and Björkman, M. (1988). Annoyance due to low frequency noise and the use of the dB(A) scale. J. Sound Vib., 127(3), 491–497.

Persson, K., and Rylander, R. (1988). Disturbance from low-frequency noise in the environment: a survey among the local environmental health authorities in Sweden. J. Sound Vib., 121(2), 339–345.

ReVelle, D. O. (1976). On meteor-generated infrasound. J. Geophys. Res., 81(7), 1217–1230.

Rice, C. G. (1994). Annoyance due to low frequency hums. BMJ, 308(6925), 355–356.

Rushforth, I., Moorhouse, A., and Styles, P. (2004). A case study of low frequency noise assessed using DIN 45680 criteria. J. Low Freq. Noise, Vib. Active Control, 21(4), 181-198,

Silber, E. A., and Brown, P. G. (2013). Scientific research to characterize and localize the Windsor hum: Final Report. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.222

Silber, E. A., and Brown, P. G. (2014). Optical observations of meteors generating infrasound—I: Acoustic signal identification and phenomenology. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 119, 116–128.

Tenforde, T. S. (1992). Biological interactions and potential health effects of extremely-low- frequency magnetic fields from power lines and other common sources. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 13, 173–196.

Vasudevan, R. N., and Gordon, C. G. (1977). Experimental study of annoyance due to low frequency environmental noise. Appl. Acoust., 10(1), 57–69.

Von Gierke, H. E., and Parker, D. E. (1976). Infrasound. In E. de Boer, et al. (Eds.), Auditory System (pp. 585–624). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Watanabe, T., and Møller, H. (1990). Low frequency hearing thresholds in pressure field and in free field. J. Low Freq. Noise, Vib. Active Control, 9(3), 106–115.

Yeowart, N. S., Bryan, M. E., and Tempest, W. (1967). The monaural MAP. threshold of hearing at frequencies from 1·5 to 100 c/s. J. Sound Vib., 6(3), 335–342.

Young, C. J., Chael, E. P., and Merchant, B. J. (2002). Version 1.7 of MatSeis and the GNEM R&E regional seismic analysis tools. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Seismic Research Symposium. pp 915-924, Washington, DC.222


TianJun Zhou, 2019: Toward better watching of the deep atmosphere over East Asia, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 85-86. doi: 10.26464/epp2019010


Jiang Yu, Jing Wang, Jun Cui, 2019: Ring current proton scattering by low-frequency magnetosonic waves, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 365-372. doi: 10.26464/epp2019037


XiongDong Yu, ZhiGang Yuan, ShiYong Huang, Fei Yao, Zheng Qiao, John R. Wygant, Herbert O. Funsten, 2019: Excitation of extremely low-frequency chorus emissions: The role of background plasma density, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 1-7. doi: 10.26464/epp2019001


ZhiGao Yang, XiaoDong Song, 2019: Ambient noise Love wave tomography of China, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 218-231. doi: 10.26464/epp2019026


XiaoShu Wu, Jun Cui, Jiang Yu, LiJuan Liu, ZhenJun Zhou, 2019: Photoelectron balance in the dayside Martian upper atmosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 373-379. doi: 10.26464/epp2019038


Qing Wang, XiaoDong Song, JianYe Ren, 2017: Ambient noise surface wave tomography of marginal seas in east Asia, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 13-25. doi: 10.26464/epp2017003


Zhi Wei, Li Zhao, 2019: Lg-Q model and its implication on high-frequency ground motion for earthquakes in the Sichuan and Yunnan region, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 526-536. doi: 10.26464/epp2019054


Zhou Tang, Dong Guo, YuCheng Su, ChunHua Shi, ChenXi Zhang, Yu Liu, XiangDong Zheng, WenWen Xu, JianJun Xu, RenQiang Liu, WeiLiang Li, 2019: Double cores of the Ozone Low in the vertical direction over the Asian continent in satellite data sets, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 93-101. doi: 10.26464/epp2019011


Wen Yi, XiangHui Xue, JinSong Chen, TingDi Chen, Na Li, 2019: Quasi-90-day oscillation observed in the MLT region at low latitudes from the Kunming meteor radar and SABER, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 136-146. doi: 10.26464/epp2019013


Konrad Sauer, Klaus Baumgärtel, Richard Sydora, 2020: Gap formation around Ωe/2 and generation of low-band whistler waves by Landau-resonant electrons in the magnetosphere: Predictions from dispersion theory, Earth and Planetary Physics. doi: 10.26464/epp2020020

Article Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract views()
  • HTML views()
  • Cited by(0)

Figures And Tables

Deployment of a short-term geophysical field survey to monitor acoustic signals associated with the Windsor Hum

Elizabeth A. Silber