Advanced Search

EPP

地球与行星物理

ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: Chao Wei, Lei Dai, SuPing Duan, Chi Wang, YuXian Wang, 2019: Multiple satellites observation evidence: High-m Poloidal ULF waves with time-varying polarization states, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 190-203. doi: 10.26464/epp2019021

2019, 3(3): 190-203. doi: 10.26464/epp2019021

SPACE PHYSICS: MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS

Multiple satellites observation evidence: High-m Poloidal ULF waves with time-varying polarization states

1. 

State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

2. 

College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Corresponding author: Lei Dai, ldai@spaceweather.ac.cn

Received Date: 2018-12-13
Accepted Date: 2019-02-14
Web Publishing Date: 2019-05-01

We report multi-spacecraft observations of ULF waves from Van Allen Probes (RBSP), Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm (THEMIS), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). On August 31, 2015, global-scale poloidal waves were observed in data from RBSP-B, GOES and THEMIS from L=4 to L=8 over a wide range of magnetic local time (MLT). The polarization states varied towards purely poloidal polarity. In two consecutive orbits over 18 hours, RBSP-A and RBSP-B recorded gradual variation of the polarization states of the poloidal waves; the ratio (|Ba|/|Br|) decreased from 0.82 to 0.13. After the variation of polarization states, the poloidal ULF waves became very purely poloidal waves, localized in both L and MLT. We identify the poloidal wave as second harmonic mode with a large azimuthal wave number (m) of –232. From RBSP particle measurements we find evidence that the high-m poloidal waves during the polarization variations were powered by inward radial gradients and bump-on-tail ion distributions through the N=1 drift-bounce resonance. Most of the time, the dominant free energy source was inward radial gradients, compared with the positive gradient in the energy distribution of the bump-on-tail ion distributions.

Key words: poloidal waves, polarization rotation, bump-on-tail, inward gradient

Baddeley, L. J., Yeoman, T. K., Wright, D. M., Trattner, K. J., and Kellet, B. J. (2004). A statistical study of unstable particle populations in the global ringcurrent and their relation to the generation of high m ULF waves. Ann. Geophys., 22(12), 4229–4241. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-22-4229-2004

Berk, H. L., Breizman, B. N., and Pekker, M. (1995). Numerical simulation of bump-on-tail instability with source and sink. Phys. Plasmas, 2(8), 3007–3016. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.871198

Chen, L., and Hasegawa, A. (1974). A theory of long-period magnetic pulsations: 1. Steady state excitation of field line resonance. J. Geophys. Res., 79(7), 1024–1032. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA079i007p01024

Chen, L., and Hasegawa, A. (1991). Kinetic theory of geomagnetic pulsations: 1.Internal excitations by energetic particles. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 96(A2), 1503–1512. https://doi.org/10.1029/90JA02346

Cheng, C. Z., and Lin, C. S. (1987). Eigenmode analysis of compressional waves in the magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 14(8), 884–887. https://doi.org/10.1029/GL014i008p00884

Chi, P. J., and Le, G. (2015). Observations of magnetospheric high-m poloidal waves by ST-5 satellites in low earth orbit during geomagnetically quiet times. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 120(6), 4776–4783. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JA021145

Cramm, R., Glassmeier, K. H., Othmer, C., Fornacon, K. H., Auster, H. U., Baumjohann, W., and Georgescu, E. (2000). A case study of a radially polarized Pc4 event observed by the Equator-S satellite. Ann. Geophys., 18(4), 411–415. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00585-000-0411-5

Cummings, W. D., O’Sullivan, R. J., and Coleman, P. J. Jr. (1969). Standing Alfvén waves in the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 74(3), 778–793. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA074i003p00778

Dai, L., Takahashi, K., Wygant, J. R., Chen, L., Bonnell, J., Cattell, C. A., Thaller, S., Kletzing, C., Smith, C. W., … Spence, H. E. (2013). Excitation of poloidal standing Alfvén waves through drift resonance wave-particle interaction. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40(16), 4127–4132. https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50800

Dai, L., Takahashi, K., Lysak, R., Wang, C., Wygant, J. R., Kletzing, C., Bonnell, J., Cattell, C. A., Smith, C. W., … Chen, L. J. (2015). Storm time occurrence and spatial distribution of Pc4 poloidal ULF waves in the inner magnetosphere: A Van Allen Probes statistical study. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 120(6), 4748–4762. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JA021134

Denton, R. E., and Gallagher, D. L. (2000). Determining the mass density along magnetic field lines from toroidal eigenfrequencies. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 105(A12), 27717–27725. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JA000397

Engebretson, M. J., Zanetti, L. J., Potemra, T. A., and Acuna, M. H. (1986). Harmonically structured ULF pulsations observed by the AMPTE CCE magnetic field experiment. Geophys. Res. Lett., 13(9), 905–908. https://doi.org/10.1029/GL013i009p00905

Engebretson, M. J., Murr, D. L., Erickson, K. N., Strangeway, R. J., Klumpar, D. M., Fuselier, S. A., Zanetti, L. J., and Potemra, T. A. (1992). The spatial extent of radial magnetic pulsation events observed in the dayside near synchronous orbit. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 97(A9), 13741–13758. https://doi.org/10.1029/92JA00992

Fitzenreiter, R. J., Klimas, A. J., and Scudder, J. D. (1984). Detection of bump-on-tail reduced electron velocity distributions at the electron foreshock boundary. Geophys. Res. Lett., 11(5), 496–499. https://doi.org/10.1029/GL011i005p00496

Funsten, H. O., Skoug, R. M., Guthrie, A. A., MacDonald, E. A., Baldonado, J. R., Harper, R. W., Henderson, K. C., Kihara, K. H., Lake, J. E., … Chen, J. (2013). Helium, oxygen, proton, and electron (HOPE) mass spectrometer for the radiation belt storm probes mission. Space Sci. Rev., 179(1–4), 423–484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-013-9968-7

Green, J. C., and Kivelson, M. G. (2004). Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt: Differentiating between acceleration mechanisms. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 109(A3), A03213. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JA010153

Hughes, W. J., Southwood, D. J., Mauk, B., McPherron, R. L., and Barfield, J. N. (1978). Alfvén waves generated by an inverted plasma energy distribution. Nature, 275(5675), 43–45. https://doi.org/10.1038/275043a0

Hughes, W. J. (1994). Magnetospheric ULF waves: a tutorial with a historical perspective. In M. J., Engebretson, et al. (Eds.), Solar Wind Sources of Magnetospheric Ultra-Low-Frequency Waves. Washington: American Geophysical Union. https://doi.org/10.1029/GM081p0001222

Kessel, R. L. (2008). Solar wind excitation of Pc5 fluctuations in the magnetosphere and on the ground. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 113(A4), A04202. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JA012255

Kletzing, C. A., Kurth, W. S., Acuna, M., MacDowall, R. J., Torbert, R. B., Averkamp, T., Bodet, D., Bounds, S. R., Chutter, M., … Tyler, J. (2013). The electric and magnetic field instrument suite and integrated science (EMFISIS) on RBSP. Space Sci. Rev., 179(1–4), 127–181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-013-9993-6

Klimushkin, D. Y. (1998). Resonators for hydromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 103(A2), 2369–2375. https://doi.org/10.1029/97JA02193

Klimushkin, D. Y., Mager, P. N., and Glassmeier, K. H. (2004). Toroidal and poloidal alfvén waves with arbitrary azimuthal wavenumbers in a finite pressure plasma in the earth’s magnetosphere. Ann. Geophys., 22(1), 267–287. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-22-267-2004

Le, G., Chi, P. J., Strangeway, R. J., and Slavin, J. A. (2011). Observations of a unique type of ULF wave by low-altitude Space Technology 5 satellites. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 116(A8), A08203. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA016574

Le, G., Chi, P. J., Strangeway, R. J., Russell, C. T., Slavin, J. A., Takahashi, K., Singer, H. J., Anderson, B. J., Bromund, K., … Torbert, R. B. (2017). Global observations of magnetospheric high-m poloidal waves during the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(8), 3456–3464. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073048

Leonovich, A. S., and Mazur, V. A. (1995). Magnetospheric resonator for transverse-small-scale standing Alfvén waves. Planet. Space Sci., 43(7), 881–883. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-0633(94)00206-7

Li, L., Zhou, X. Z., Zong, Q. G., Rankin, R., Zou, H., Liu, Y., Chen, X. R., and Hao, Y. X. (2017). Charged particle behavior in localized ultralow frequency waves: Theory and observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(12), 5900–5908. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073392

Lindqvist, P. A., Olsson, G., Torbert, R. B., King, B., Granoff, M., Rau, D., Needell, G., Turco, S., Dors, I., … Åhlén, L. (2016). The spin-plane double probe electric field instrument for MMS. Space Sci. Rev., 199(1–4), 137–165. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-014-0116-9

Liu, W., Sarris, T. E., Li, X., Zong, Q. G., Ergun, R., Angelopoulos, V., and Glassmeier, K. H. (2011). Spatial structure and temporal evolution of a dayside poloidal ULF wave event. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38(19), L19104. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049476

Liu, W., Cao, J. B., Li, X., Sarris, T. E., Zong, Q. G., Hartinger, M., Takahashi, K., Zhang, H., Shi, Q. Q., and Angelopoulos, V. (2013). Poloidal ULF wave observed in the plasmasphere boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 118(7), 4298–4307. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgra.50427

Mager, P. N., and Klimushkin, D. Y. (2013). Giant pulsations as modes of a transverse Alfvénic resonator on the plasmapause. Earth Planets Space, 65(5), 397–409. https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2012.10.002

Mann, I. R., and Wright, A. N. (1995). Finite lifetimes of ideal poloidal Alfvén waves. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 100(A12), 23677–23686. https://doi.org/10.1029/95JA02689

Menk, F. W., Orr, D., Clilverd, M. A., Smith, A. J., Waters, C. L., Milling, D. K., and Fraser, B. J. (1999). Monitoring spatial and temporal variations in the dayside plasmasphere using geomagnetic field line resonances. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 104(A9), 19955–19. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JA900205

Min, K., Takahashi, K., Ukhorskiy, A. Y., Manweiler, J. W., Spence, H. E., Singer, H., J., Claudepierre, S. G., Larsen, B. A., Soto-Chavez, B. A., … Cohen, R. J. (2017). Second harmonic poloidal waves observed by Van Allen Probes in the dusk-midnight sector. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 122(3), 3013–3039. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA023770

Oimatsu, S., Nosé, M., Takahashi, K., Yamamoto, K., Keika, K., Kletzing, C. A., Smith, C. W., MacDowall, R. J., and Mitchell, D. G. (2018). Van Allen probes observations of drift-bounce resonance and energy transfer between energetic ring current protons and poloidal Pc4 wave. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 123(5), 3421–3435. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JA025087

Orr, D., and Matthew, J. A. D. (1971). The variation of geomagnetic micropulsation periods with latitude and the plasmapause. Planet. Space Sci., 19(8), 897–905. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-0633(71)90141-3

Radoski, H. R. (1974). A theory of latitude dependent geomagnetic micropulsations: The asymptotic fields. J. Geophys. Res., 79(4), 595–603. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA079i004p00595

Ren, J., Zong, Q. G., Miyoshi, Y., Zhou, X. Z., Wang, Y. F., Rankin, R., Yue, C., Spence, H. E., Funsten, H. O., … Kletzing, C. A. (2017). Low-energy (<200 eV) electron acceleration by ULF waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer: Van Allen probes observation. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 122(10), 9969–9982. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA024316

Roederer, J. G., and Hones, E. W. Jr. (1970). Electric field in the magnetosphere as deduced from asymmetries in the trapped particle flux. J. Geophys. Res., 75(19), 3923–3926. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA075i019p03923

Russell, C. T., Luhmann, J. G., Odera, T. J., and Stuart, W. F. (1983). The rate of occurrence of dayside Pc 3, 4 pulsations: The L-value dependence of the IMF cone angle effect. Geophys. Res. Lett., 10(8), 663–666. https://doi.org/10.1029/GL010i008p00663

Russell, C. T., Anderson, B. J., Baumjohann, W., Bromund, K. R., Dearborn, D., Fischer, D., Le, G., Leinweber, H. K., Leneman, D., … Richter, I. (2016). The magnetospheric multiscale magnetometers. Space Sci. Rev., 199(1–4), 189–256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-014-0057-3

Sarris, T. E., Wright, A. N., and Li, X. (2009). Observations and analysis of Alfvén wave phase mixing in the Earth’s magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 114(A3), A03218. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JA013606

Schäfer, S., Glassmeier, K. H., Eriksson, P. T. I., Pierrard, V., Fornaçon, K. H., and Blomberg, L. G. (2007). Spatial and temporal characteristics of poloidal waves in the terrestrial plasmasphere: a CLUSTER case study. Ann. Geophys., 25(4), 1011–1024. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-25-1011-2007

Singer, H. J., Hughes, W. J., and Russell, C. T. (1982). Standing hydromagnetic waves observed by ISEE 1 and 2: Radial extent and harmonic. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 87(A5), 3519–3529. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA087iA05p03519

Southwood, D. J., Dungey, J. W., and Etherington, R. J. (1969). Bounce resonant interaction between pulsations and trapped particles. Planet. Space Sci., 17(3), 349–361. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-0633(69)90068-3

Southwood, D. J. (1974). Some features of field line resonances in the magnetosphere. Planet. Space Sci., 22(3), 483–491. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-0633(74)90078-6

Southwood, D. J. (1976). A general approach to low-frequency instability in the ring current plasma. J. Geophys. Res., 81(19), 3340–3348. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA081i019p03340

Southwood, D. J., and Kivelson, M. G. (1982). Charged particle behavior in low-frequency geomagnetic pulsations, 2. Graphical approach. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 87(A3), 1707–1710. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA087iA03p01707

Takahashi, K., McEntire, R. W., Lui, A. T. Y., and Potemra, T. A. (1990). Ion flux oscillations associated with a radially polarized transverse Pc 5 magnetic pulsation. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 95(A4), 3717–3731. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA095iA04p03717

Takahashi, K., Glassmeier, K. H., Angelopoulos, V., Bonnell, J., Nishimura, Y., Singer, H. J., and Russell, C. T. (2011). Multisatellite observations of a giant pulsation event. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 116(A11), A11223. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA016955

Takahashi, K., Denton, R. E., Kurth, W., Kletzing, C., Wygant, J., Bonnell, J., Dai, L., Min, K., Smith, C. W., and MacDowall, R. (2015). Externally driven plasmaspheric ulf waves observed by the Van Allen probes. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 120(1), 526–552. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JA020373

Takahashi, K., Claudepierre, S. G., Rankin, R., Mann, I. R., and Smith, C. W. (2018a). Van Allen probes observation of a fundamental poloidal standing Alfvén wave event related to giant pulsations. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 123(6), 4574–4593. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JA025139

Takahashi, K., Oimatsu, S., Nosé, M., Min, K., Claudepierre, S. G., Chan, A., Wygant, J., and Kim, H. (2018b). Van Allen probes observations of second harmonic poloidal standing Alfvén waves. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 123(1), 611–637. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA024869

Torbert, R. B., Russell, C. T., Magnes, W., Ergun, R. E., Lindqvist, P. A., LeContel, O., Vaith, H., Macri, J., Myers, … Lappalainen, K. (2016). The FIELDS instrument suite on MMS: Scientific objectives, measurements, and data products. Space Sci. Rev., 199(1–4), 105–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-014-0109-8

Wygant, J. R., Bonnell, J. W., Goetz, K., Ergun, R. E., Mozer, F. S., Bale, S. D., Ludlam, M., Turin, P., Harvey, P. R., … Tao, J. B. (2013). The electric field and waves instruments on the radiation belt storm probes mission. Space Sci. Rev., 179(1–4), 183–220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-013-0013-7

Yeoman, T. K., Wright, D. M., Chapman, P. J., and Stockton-Chalk, A. B. (2000). High-latitude observations of ULF waves with large azimuthal wavenumbers. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 105(A3), 5453–5462. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JA005081

Zhao, L. L., Zhang, H., and Zong, Q. G. (2017). Global ULF waves generated by a hot flow anomaly. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(11), 5283–5291. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073249

Zhou, X. Z., Wang, Z. H., Zong, Q. G., Claudepierre, S. G., Mann, I. R., Kivelson, M. G., Angelopoulos, V., Hao, Y. X., Wang, Y. F., and Pu, Z. Y. (2015). Imprints of impulse-excited hydromagnetic waves on electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(15), 6199–6204. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064988

Zong, Q. G., Zhou, X. Z., Li, X., Song, P., Fu, S. Y., Baker, D. N., Pu, Z. Y., Fritz, T. A., Daly, … Réme, H. (2007). Ultralow frequency modulation of energetic particles in the dayside magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(12), L12105. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029915

Zong, Q. G., Zhou, X. Z., Wang, Y. F., Li, X., Song, P., Baker, D. N., Fritz, T. A., Daly, P. W., Dunlop, M., and Pedersen, A. (2009). Energetic electron response to ULF waves induced by interplanetary shocks in the outer radiation belt. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 114(A10), A10204. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JA014393

Zong, Q. G., Rankin, R., and Zhou, X. Z. (2017). The interaction of ultra-low-frequency pc3-5 waves with charged particles in earth’s magnetosphere. Rev. Mod. Plasma Phys., 1(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41614-017-0011-4

[1]

Qiu-Gang Zong, YongFu Wang, Jie Ren, XuZhi Zhou, SuiYan Fu, Robert Rankin, Hui Zhang, 2017: Corotating drift-bounce resonance of plasmaspheric electron with poloidal ULF waves, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 2-12. doi: 10.26464/epp2017002

[2]

XiaoZhong Tong, JianXin Liu, AiYong Li, 2018: Two-dimensional regularized inversion of AMT data based on rotation invariant of Central impedance tensor, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 430-437. doi: 10.26464/epp2018040

[3]

WenShuang Wang, XiaoDong Song, 2019: Analyses of anomalous amplitudes of antipodal PKIIKP waves, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 212-217. doi: 10.26464/epp2019023

[4]

Jiang Yu, Jing Wang, Jun Cui, 2019: Ring current proton scattering by low-frequency magnetosonic waves, Earth and Planetary Physics. doi: 10.26464/epp2019037

[5]

HuaYu Zhao, Xu-Zhi Zhou, Ying Liu, Qiu-Gang Zong, Robert Rankin, YongFu Wang, QuanQi Shi, Xiao-Chen Shen, Jie Ren, Han Liu, XingRan Chen, 2019: Poleward-moving recurrent auroral arcs associated with impulse-excited standing hydromagnetic waves, Earth and Planetary Physics. doi: 10.26464/epp2019032

Article Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract views()
  • HTML views()
  • Cited by(0)
Catalog

Figures And Tables

Multiple satellites observation evidence: High-m Poloidal ULF waves with time-varying polarization states

Chao Wei, Lei Dai, SuPing Duan, Chi Wang, YuXian Wang