Citation: Zhang, X. X., F. He, B. Chen, C. Shen, H. N. Wang (2017), Correlations between plasmapause evolutions and auroral signatures during substorms observed by Chang’e-3 EUV Camera, Earth Planet. Phys., 1, 35-43, doi: 10.26464/epp2017005

2017, 1(1): 35-43. doi: 10.26464/epp2017005

Correlations between plasmapause evolutions and auroral signatures during substorms observed by Chang’e-3 EUV Camera


Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China


Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China


College of Earth Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China


Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033, China


School of Natural Sciences and Humanity, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518005, China


National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China

Corresponding author: Fei He,

Received Date: 2017-04-10
Web Publishing Date: 2017-01-01

The plasmapause locations determined from the Chang’e-3 (CE-3) Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) images and the auroral boundaries determined from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) images are used to investigate the plasmaspheric evolutions during substorms. The most important finding is a nightside pointing plasmaspheric plume observed at 23:05 UT on 21 April 2014 under quiet solar wind and geomagnetic conditions, which drifted from the dusk sector. High correlations between the plasmapause evolutions and the auroral signatures exist during substorms. After substorm onset, the plasmapause erosion and the equatorward expansion of the auroral oval occur almost simultaneously in both MLT and UT, and then both the erosion and the expansion propagate westward and eastward. It is suggested that the plasmaspheric erosion and its MLT propagations are induced by the enhanced earthward plasma convection during substorm period, and the substorm dipolarization causes pitch-angle scattering of plasma sheet electrons and the resulting precipitation excites aurora emissions at the same time.

Key words: plasmasphere; Chang’e-3; EUVC; minimum L Algorithm; substorm

Akasofu, S. I. (1964), The development of the auroral substorm, Planet. Space Sci., 12, 273-282, doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(64)90151-5.

Burch, J. L. (2003). Magnetospheric Imaging – The Image Prime Mission. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Cao, C. G., Newman, T. S., and Germany,G. A. (2009), New shape-based auroral oval segmentation driven by LLS-RHT, Pattern Recogn., 42, 607-618, doi: 10.1016/j.patcog.2008.08.018.

Carpenter, D. L., and Smith, A. J. (2001), The study of bulk plasma motions and associated electric fields in the plasmasphere by means of whistler-mode signals, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 63, 1117-1132, doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00217-0.

Chen, A. J., and Grebowsky, J. M. (1974), Plasma tail interpretations of pronounced detached plasma regions measured by OGO 5, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 3851-3855, doi: 10.1029/JA079i025p03851.

Chen, A. J., and Wolf, R. A. (1972), Effects on the plasmasphere of a time-varying convection electric field, Planet. Space Sci., 20, 483-509, doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(72)90080-3.

Chen, B., Song, K. F., Li, Z. H., Wu, Q. W., Ni, Q. L., Wang, X. D., Xie, J. J., Liu, S. J., He, L. P., He, F., Wang, X. G., Chen, B., Zhang, H. J., Wang, X. D., Wang, H. F., Zheng, X., E, S. L., Wang, Y. C., Yu, T., Sun, L., Wang, J. L., Wang, Z., Yang, L., Hu, Q. L., Qiao, K., Wang, Z. S., Yang, X. W., Bao, H. M., Liu, W. G., Li, Z., Chen, Y., Gao, Y., Sun, H., and Chen, W. C. (2014), Development and calibration of the Moon-based EUV camera for Chang’e-3, Res. Astron. Astrophys., 14, 1654-1663, doi: 10.1088/1674-4527/14/12/013.

Darrouzet, F., De Keyser, J., Décréau, P. M. E., El Lemdani-Mazouz, F., and Vallières, X. (2008), Statistical analysis of plasmaspheric plumes with CLUSTER/WHISPER observations, Ann. Geophys., 26, 2403-2417, doi: 10.5194/angeo-26-2403-2008.

Darrouzet, F., Gallagher, D. L., André, N., Carpenter, D. L., Dandouras, I., Décréau, P. M. E., De Keyser, J., Denton, R. E., Foster, J. C., Goldstein, J., Moldwin, M. B., Reinisch, B. W., Sandel, B. R., and Tu, J. N. (2009), Plasmaspheric density structures and dynamics: Properties observed by the CLUSTER and IMAGE missions, Space Sci. Rev., 145, 55-106, doi: 10.1007/s11214-008-9438-9.

Feng, J. Q., Liu, J. J., He, F., Yan, W., Ren, X., Tan, X., He, L. P., Chen, B., Zuo, W., Wen, W. B., Su, Y., Zou, Y. L., and Li, C. L. (2014), Data processing and initial results from the CE-3 Extreme Ultraviolet Camera, Res. Astro. Astrophys., 14, 1664-1673, doi: 10.1088/1674-4527/14/12/014.

Ge, Y. S., Zhou, X.-Z., Liang, J., Raeder, J., Gilson, M. L., Donovan, E., Angelopoulos, V., and Runov, A. (2012), Dipolarization fronts and associated auroral activities: 1. Conjugate observations and perspectives from global MHD simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 117(A10), A10226, doi: 10.1029/2012JA017676.

Goldstein, J., Sandel, B. R., Forrester, W. T., and Reiff, P. H. (2003a), IMF-driven plasmasphere erosion of 10 July 2000, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1146, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016478.

Goldstein, J., Sandel, B. R., Hairston, M. R., and Reiff, P. H. (2003b), Control of plasmaspheric dynamics by both convection and sub-auroral polarization stream, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2243, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018390.

Goldstein, J., Sandel, B. R., Thomsen, M. F., Spasojević, M., and Reiff, P. H. (2004), Simultaneous remote sensing and in situ observations of plasmaspheric drainage plumes, J. Geophys. Res., 109(A3), A03202, doi: 10.1029/2003JA010281.

Goldstein, J., Burch, J. L., Sandel, B. R., Mende, S. B., C:son Brandt, P., and Hairston, M. R. (2005), Coupled response of the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere on 17 April 2002, J. Geophys. Res., 110(A3), A03205, doi: 10.1029/2004JA010712.

Goldstein, J., Sandelm, B. R., Frey, H. U., and Mende, S. B. (2007), Multiple plasmapause undulations observed by the IMAGE satellite on 20 March 2001, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 69, 322-333, doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2006.08.010.

Goldstein, J., Thomsen, M. F., and DeJong, A. (2014), In situ signatures of residual plasmaspheric plumes: Observations and simulation, J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 119, 4706-4722, doi: 10.1002/2014JA019953.

Grebowsky, J. M. (1970), Model study of plasmapause motion, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 4329-4333, doi: 10.1029/JA075i022p04329.

He, F., X. Zhang, X., Chen, B., and Fok, M.-C. (2011), Reconstruction of the plasmasphere from Moon-based EUV images, J. Geophys. Res., 116(A11), A11203, doi: 10.1029/2010JA016364.

He, F., Zhang, X. X., Chen, B., and Fok, M.-C. (2012a), Plasmaspheric trough evolution under different conditions of subauroral ion drift, Sci. China Tech. Sci., 55, 1287-1294, doi: 10.1007/s11431-012-4781-1.

He, F., Zhang, X. X., Chen, B., and Fok, M.-C. (2012b), Inversion of the Earth’s plasmaspheric density distribution from EUV images with genetic algorithm, Chinese J. Geophys. (in Chinese), 55, 29-35, doi: 10.6038/j.issn.0001-5733.2012.01.003.

He, F., Zhang, X.-X., Chen, B., Fok, M.-C., and Zou, Y.-L. (2013), Moon-based EUV imaging of the Earth’s Plasmasphere: Model simulations, J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 118, 7085-7103, doi: 10.1002/2013JA018962.

He, F., Zhang, X.-X., Chen, B., Fok, M.-C., and Nakano, S. (2016), Determination of the Earth’s plasmapause location from the CE-3 EUVC images, J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 121, 296-304, doi: 10.1002/2015JA021863.

He, H., Shen, C., Wang, H. N., Zhang, X. X., Chen, B., Yan, J., Zou, Y. L., Jorgensen, A. M., He, F., Yan, Y., Zhu, X. S., Huang, Y., and Xu, R. L. (2016), Response of plasmaspheric configuration to substorms revealed by Chang’E 3, Sci. Rep., 6, 32362, doi: 10.1038/srep32362.

Kwon, H.-J., Kim, K.-H., Jee, G., Park, J.-S., Jin, H., and Nishimura, Y. (2015), Plasmapause location under quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp≤1): THEMIS observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 7303-7310, doi: 10.1002/2015GL066090.

Lemaire, J. F., Gringauz, K. I., Carpenter, D. L., and Bassolo, V. (1998). The Earth’s Plasmasphere. New York: Cambridge University Press

McPherron, R. L., Russell, C. T., and Aubry, M. P. (1973), Satellite studies of magnetospheric substorms on August 15, 1968: 9. Phenomenological model for substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 3131-3149, doi: 10.1029/JA078i016p03131.

Mende, S. B., Angelopoulos, V., Frey, H. U., Harris, S., Donovan, E., Jackel, B., Syrjaesuo, M., Russell, C. T., and Mann, I. (2007), Determination of substorm onset timing and location using the THEMIS ground based observatories, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L17108, doi: 10.1029/2007GL030850.

Moldwin, M. B., Howard, J., Sanny, J., Bocchicchio, J. D., Rassoul, H. K., and Anderson, R. R. (2004), Plasmaspheric plumes: CRRES observations of enhanced density beyond the plasmapause, J. Geophys. Res., 109(A5), A05202, doi: 10.1029/2003JA010320.

Ober, D. M., Horwitz, J. L., and Gallagher, D. L. (1997a), Formation of density troughs embedded in the outer plasmasphere by subauroral ion drift events, J. Geophys. Res., 102(A7), 14595-14602, doi: 10.1029/97JA01046.

Ober, D. M., Horwitz, J. L., Thomsen, M. F., Elphic, R. C., McComas, D. J., Belian, R. D., and Moldwin, M. B. (1997b), Premidnight plasmaspheric " plumes”, J. Geophys. Res., 102(A6), 11325-11334, doi: 10.1029/97JA00562.

Ohtani, S., Kokubun, S., and Russell, C. T. (1992), Radial expansion of the tail current disruption during substorms: A new approach to the substorm onset region, J. Geophys. Res., 97(A3), 3129-3136, doi: 10.1029/91JA02470.

Paxton, L. J., Meng, C. I., Fountain, G. H., Ogorzalek, B. S., Darlington, E. H., Gary, S. A., Goldsten, J. O., Kusnierkiewicz, D. Y., Lee, S. C., Linstrom, L. A., Maynard, J. J., Peacock, K., Persons, D. F., and Smith, B. E. (1992), Special sensor ultraviolet spectrographic imager (SSUSI): An instrument description, Pro. SPIE, 1745, 2, doi: 10.1117/12.60595.

Pierrard, V., and Lemaire, J. F. (2004), Development of shoulders and plumes in the frame of the interchange instability mechanism for plasmapause formation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L05809, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018919.

Rasmussen, C. E., Guitar, S. M., and Thomas, S. G. (1993), A two-dimensional model of the plasmasphere: Refilling time constants, Planet. Space Sci., 41, 35-43, doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(93)90015-T.

Runov, A., Angelopoulos, V., Sitnov, M. I., Sergeev, V. A., Bonnell, J., McFadden, J. P., Larson, D., Glassmeier, K.-H., and Auster, U. (2009), THEMIS observations of an earthward-propagating dipolarization front, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L14106, doi: 10.1029/2009GL038980.

Sandel, B. R., Broadfoot, A. L., Curtis, C. C., King, R. A., Stone, T. C., Hill, R. H., Chen, J., Siegmund, O. H. W., Raffanti, R., Allred, D. D., Turley, R. S., and Gallagher, D. L. (2000), The extreme ultraviolet imager investigation for the image mission, Space Sci. Rev., 91, 197-242, doi: 10.1023/A:1005263510820.

Sandel, B. R., King, R. A., Forrester, W. T., Gallagherm, D. L., Broadfoot, A. L., and Curtis, C. C. (2001), Initial results from the IMAGE extreme ultraviolet imager, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1439-1442, doi: 10.1029/2001GL012885.

Sandel, B. R., Goldstein, J., Gallagher, D. L., and Spasojević, M. (2003), Extreme ultraviolet imager observations of the structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere, Space Sci. Rev., 109, 25-46, doi: 10.1023/B:SPAC.0000007511.47727.5b.

Sitnov, M. I., Tsyganenko, N. A., Ukhorskiy, A. Y., and Brandt, P. C. (2008), Dynamical data-based modeling of the storm-time geomagnetic field with enhanced spatial resolution, J. Geophys. Res., 113(A7), A07218, doi: 10.1029/2007JA013003.

Spasojević, M., Goldstein, J., Carpenter, D. L., Inan, U. S., Sandel, B. R., Moldwin, M. B., and Reinisch, B. W. (2003), Global response of the plasmasphere to a geomagnetic disturbance, J. Geophys. Res., 108(A9), 1340, doi: 10.1029/2003JA009987.

Spasojević, M., Frey, H. U., Thomsen, M. F., Fuselier, S. A., Gary, S. P., Sandel, B. R., and Inan, U. S. (2004), The link between a detached subauroral proton arc and a plasmaspheric plume, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L04803, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018389.

Tsyganenko, N. A., and M. I. Sitnov (2007), Magnetospheric configurations from a high-resolution data-based magnetic field model, J. Geophys. Res., 112(A6), A06225, doi: 10.1029/2007JA012260.

Walsh, B. M., Phan, T. D., Sibeck, D. G., and Souza, V. M. (2014), The plasmaspheric plume and magnetopause reconnection, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 223-228, doi: 10.1002/2013GL058802.

Wang, C. L., Newman, T. S., and Gallagher, D. L. (2007), Plasmapause equatorial shape determination via the Minimum L Algorithm: Description and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 112(A12), A12201, doi: 10.1029/2006JA012202.

Wanliss, J. (2006), Substorm onset location and dipole tilt angle, Ann. Geophys., 24, 577-588, doi: 10.5194/angeo-24-577-2006.

Yan, Y., Wang, H. N., He, H., Chen, B., Feng, J. Q., Ping, J. S., Shen, C., Xu, R. L., and Zhang, X. X. (2016), Analysis of observational data from Extreme Ultra-Violet Camera onboard Chang’E-3 mission, Astrophys. Space Sci., 361, 76, doi: 10.1007/s10509-016-2650-2.

Zhang, X. X., Wang, C., Chen, T., Wang, Y. L., Tan, A., Wu, T. S., Germany, G. A., and Wang, W. (2005), Global patterns of Joule heating in the high-latitude ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 110(A12), A12208, doi: 10.1029/2005JA011222.

Zou, S., Moldwin, M. B., Lyons, L. R., Nishimura, Y., Hirahara, M., Sakanoi, T., Asamura, K., Nicolls, M. J., Miyashita, Y., Mende, S. B., and Heinselman, C. J. (2010), Identification of substorm onset location and preonset sequence using Reimei, THEMIS GBO, PFISR, and Geotail, J. Geophys. Res., 115(A12), A12309, doi: 10.1029/2010JA015520.

  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract views()
  • HTML views()

Figures And Tables

Correlations between plasmapause evolutions and auroral signatures during substorms observed by Chang’e-3 EUV Camera

XiaoXin Zhang, Fei He, Bo Chen, Chao Shen, HuaNing Wang