Advanced Search

EPP

地球与行星物理

ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: Cao, Y. T., Cui, J., Wu, X. S., and Zhong, J. H. (2020). Photoelectron pitch angle distribution near Mars and implications on cross terminator magnetic field connectivity. Earth Planet. Phys., 4(1), 17–22.doi: 10.26464/epp2020008

2020, 4(1): 17-22. doi: 10.26464/epp2020008

PLANETARY SCIENCES

Photoelectron pitch angle distribution near Mars and implications on cross terminator magnetic field connectivity

1. 

Key Laboratory of Lunar and Deep Space Exploration, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China

2. 

School of Astronomy and Space Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

3. 

School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai Guangdong 519082, China

4. 

Center for Excellence in Comparative Planetology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026, China

Corresponding author: Jun Cui, cuijun7@mail.sysu.edu.cn

Received Date: 2019-11-06
Web Publishing Date: 2020-01-01

The photoelectron peak at 22–27 eV, a distinctive feature of the energetic electron distribution in the dayside Martian ionosphere, is a useful diagnostic of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray ionization as well as of large-scale transport along magnetic field lines. In this work, we analyze the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of energetic electrons at 22–27 eV measured during several representative Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) orbits, based on the electron spectra gathered by MAVEN’s Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) instrument. On the dayside, most photoelectron spectra show an isotropic PAD as is expected from production via solar EUV/X-ray ionization. The photoelectron spectra occasionally observed on the nightside show instead a strongly anisotropic PAD, indicative of cross-terminator transport along ambient magnetic field lines. This would in turn predict the presence of dayside photoelectrons, also with a strongly anisotropic PAD, which was indeed revealed in SWEA data. Comparison with magnetic field measurements made by the MAVEN Magnetometer suggests that on average the photoelectrons with anisotropic PAD stream away from Mars on the dayside and towards Mars on the nightside, further supporting the scenario of day-to-night transport. On both sides, anisotropic photoelectrons tend to be observed above the photoelectron exobase at ~160 km where photoelectron transport dominates over local production and energy degradation.

Key words: Mars, MAVEN, photoelectron, Day-to-night transport

Cao, Y. T., Cui, J., Wu, X. S., Guo, J. P., and Wei, Y. (2019). Structural variability of the Nightside Martian ionosphere near the terminator: Implications on plasma sources. J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 124(6), 1495–1511. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JE005970

Coates, A. J., Tsang, S. M. E., Wellbrock, A., Frahm, R. A., Winningham, J. D., Barabash, S., Lundin, R., Young, D. T., and Crary, F. J. (2011). Ionospheric photoelectrons: Comparing Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan. Planet. Space Sci., 59(10), 1019–1027. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2010.07.016

Connerney, J. E. P., Espley, J., Lawton, P., Murphy, S., Odom, J., Oliversen, R., and Sheppard, D. (2015). The MAVEN magnetic field investigation. Space Sci. Rev., 195(1-4), 257–291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-015-0169-4

Cui, J., Galand, M., Yelle, R. V., Vuitton, V., Wahlund, J. E., Lavvas, P. P., Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F., Cravens, T. E., Kasprzak, W. T., and Waite, Jr. J. H. (2009). Diurnal variations of Titan’s ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 114(A6), A06310. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JA014228

Cui, J., Galand, M., Yelle, R. V., Wahlund, J. E., Ågren, K., Waite, Jr. J. H., and Dougherty, M. K. (2010). Ion transport in Titan’s upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 115(A6), A06314. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JA014563

Cui, J., Galand, M., Yelle, R. V., Wei, Y., and Zhang, S. J. (2015). Day-to-night transport in the Martian ionosphere: Implications from total electron content measurements. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 120(3), 2333–2346. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JA020788

Cui, J., Cao, Y. T., Wu, X. S., Xu, S. S., Yelle, R. V., Stone, S., Vigren, E., Edberg, N. J. T., Shen, C. L., … Wei, Y. (2019). Evaluating local ionization balance in the Nightside Martian upper atmosphere during MAVEN deep dip campaigns. Astrophys. J. Lett., 876(1), L12. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab1b34

Duru, F., Gurnett, D. A., Morgan, D. D., Winningham, J. D., Frahm, R. A., and Nagy, A. F. (2011). Nightside ionosphere of Mars studied with local electron densities: A general overview and electron density depressions. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 116(A10), A10316. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA016835

Fowler, C. M., Andersson, L., Ergun, R. E., Morooka, M., Delory, G., Andrews, D. J., Lillis, R. J., McEnulty, T., Weber, T. D., … Jakosky, B. M. (2015). The first in situ electron temperature and density measurements of the Martian nightside ionosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(21), 8854–8861. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065267

Fox, J. L., Brannon, J. F., and Porter, H. S. (1993). Upper limits to the nightside ionosphere of Mars. Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(13), 1339–1342. https://doi.org/10.1029/93GL01349

Frahm, R. A., Winningham, J. D., Sharber, J. R., Scherrer, J. R., Jeffers, S. J., Coates, A. J., Linder, D. R., Kataria, D. O., Lundin, R., … Dierker, C. (2006). Carbon dioxide photoelectron energy peaks at Mars. Icarus, 182(2), 371–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2006.01.014

Knudsen, W. C., Spenner, K., Miller, K. L., and Novak, V. (1980). Transport of ionospheric O+ ions across the Venus terminator and implications. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 85(A13), 7803–7810. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA085iA13p07803

Knudsen, W. C., and Miller, K. L. (1992). The Venus transterminator ion flux at solar maximum. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 97(A11), 17165–17167. https://doi.org/10.1029/92JA01460

Lillis, R. J., Fillingim, M. O., Peticolas, L. M., Brain, D. A., Lin, R. P., and Bougher, S. W. (2009). Nightside ionosphere of Mars: Modeling the effects of crustal magnetic fields and electron pitch angle distributions on electron impact ionization. J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 114(E11), E11009. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JE003379

Lillis, R. J., Fillingim, M. O., and Brain, D. A. (2011). Three-dimensional structure of the Martian nightside ionosphere: Predicted rates of impact ionization from Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer and electron reflectometer measurements of precipitating electrons. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 116(A12), A12317. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA016982

Lillis, R. J., and Brain, D. A. (2013). Nightside electron precipitation at Mars: Geographic variability and dependence on solar wind conditions. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 118(6), 3546–3556. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgra.50171

Lillis, R. J., Mitchell, D. L., Steckiewicz, M., Brain, D., Xu, S. S., Weber, T., Halekas, J., Connerney, J., Espley, J., … Eparvier, F. (2018). Ionizing electrons on the Martian Nightside: structure and variability. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 123(5), 4349–4363. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JA025151

Mantas, G. P., and Hanson, W. B. (1979). Photoelectron fluxes in the Martian ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 84(A2), 369–385. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA084iA02p00369

Mitchell, D. L., Mazelle, C., Sauvaud, J. A., Thocaven, J. J., Rouzaud, J., Fedorov, A., Rouger, P., Toublanc, D., Taylor, E., … Jakosky, B. M. (2016). The MAVEN solar wind electron analyzer. Space Sci. Rev., 200(1-4), 495–528. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-015-0232-1

Němec, F., Morgan, D. D., Gurnett, D. A., and Duru, F. (2010). Nightside ionosphere of Mars: Radar soundings by the Mars Express spacecraft. J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 115(E12), E12009. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JE003663

Peterson, W. K., Thiemann, E., M. B., Eparvier, F. G., Andersson, L., Fowler, C. M., Larson, D., Mitchell, D., Mazelle, C., Fontenla, J., … Jakosky, B. (2016). Photoelectrons and solar ionizing radiation at Mars: Predictions versus MAVEN observations. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 121(9), 8859–8870. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA022677

Sakai, S., Rahmati, A., Mitchell, D. L., Cravens, T. E., Bougher, S. W., Mazelle, C., Peterson, W. K., Eparvier, F. G., Fontenla, J. M., and Jakosky, B. M. (2015). Model insights into energetic photoelectrons measured at Mars by MAVEN. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(21), 8894–8900. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065169

Spenner, K., Knudsen, W. C., Whitten, R. C., Michelson, P. F., Miller, K. L., and Novak, V. (1981). On the maintenance of the Venus nightside ionosphere: Electron precipitation and plasma transport. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 86(A11), 9170–9178. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA086iA11p09170

Steckiewicz, M., Mazelle, C., Garnier, P., André, N., Penou, E., Beth, A., Sauvaud, J. A., Toublanc, D., Mitchell, D. L., … Jakosky, B. M. (2015). Altitude dependence of nightside Martian suprathermal electron depletions as revealed by MAVEN observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(21), 8877–8884. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065257

Steckiewicz, M., Garnier, P., André, N., Mitchell, D. L., Andersson, L., Penou, E., Beth, A., Fedorov, A., Sauvaud, J. A., … Jakosky, B. M. (2017). Comparative study of the Martian suprathermal electron depletions based on Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Atmosphere and volatile evolution mission observations. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 122(1), 857–873. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA023205

Verigin, M. I., Gringauz, K. I., Shutte, N. M., Haider, S. A., Szego, K., Kiraly, P., Nagy, A. F., and Gombosi, T. I. (1991). On the possible source of the ionization in the nighttime Martian ionosphere: 1. Phobos 2 Harp electron spectrometer measurements. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 96(A11), 19307–19313. https://doi.org/10.1029/91JA00924

Weber, T., Brain, D., Mitchell, D., Xu, S. S., Connerney, J., and Halekas, J. (2017). Characterization of low-altitude nightside Martian magnetic topology using electron pitch angle distributions. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 122(10), 9777–9789. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA024491

Withers, P. (2009). A review of observed variability in the dayside ionosphere of Mars. Adv. Space Res., 44(3), 277–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2009.04.027

Withers, P., Fillingim, M. O., Lillis, R. J., Häusler, B., Hinson, D. P., Tyler, G. L., Pätzold, M., Peter, K., Tellmann, S., and Witasse, O. (2012). Observations of the nightside ionosphere of Mars by the Mars Express Radio Science Experiment (MaRS). J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 117(A12), A12307. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JA018185

Wu, X. S., Cui, J., Yu, J., Liu, L. J., and Zhou, Z. J. (2019). Photoelectron balance in the dayside Martian upper atmosphere. Earth Planet. Phys., 3(5), 373–379. https://doi.org/10.26464/epp2019038

Xu, S. S., Mitchell, D., Liemohn, M., Dong, C. F., Bougher, S., Fillingim, M., Lillis, R., McFadden, J., Mazelle, C., … Jakosky, B. (2016). Deep nightside photoelectron observations by MAVEN SWEA: Implications for Martian northern hemispheric magnetic topology and nightside ionosphere source. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(17), 8876–8884. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL070527

Xu, S. S., Mitchell, D., Liemohn, M., Fang, X. H., Ma, Y. J., Luhmann, J., Brain, D., Steckiewicz, Mazelle, M., … Jakosky, B. (2017a). Martian low-altitude magnetic topology deduced from MAVEN/SWEA observations. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 122(2), 1831–1852. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA023467

Xu, S. S., Mitchell, D., Luhmann, J., Ma, Y. J., Fang, X. H., Harada, Y., Hara, T., Brain, D., Weber, T., … DiBraccio, G. A. (2017b). High-altitude closed magnetic loops at mars observed by MAVEN. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(22), 11229–11238. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL075831

Xu, S. S., Weber, T., Mitchell, D. L., Brain, D. A., Mazelle, C., DiBraccio, G. A., and Espley, J. (2019). A technique to infer magnetic topology at mars and its application to the terminator region. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 124(3), 1823–1842. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JA026366

Zhang, M. H. G., Luhmann, J. G., and Kliore, A. J. (1990). An observational study of the nightside ionospheres of Mars and Venus with radio occultation methods. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 95(A10), 17095–17102. https://doi.org/10.1029/JA095iA10p17095

[1]

XiaoShu Wu, Jun Cui, YuTian Cao, WeiQin Sun, Qiong Luo, BinBin Ni, 2020: Response of photoelectron peaks in the Martian ionosphere to solar EUV/X-ray irradiance, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 390-395. doi: 10.26464/epp2020035

[2]

XiaoShu Wu, Jun Cui, Jiang Yu, LiJuan Liu, ZhenJun Zhou, 2019: Photoelectron balance in the dayside Martian upper atmosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 373-379. doi: 10.26464/epp2019038

[3]

Hao Gu, Jun Cui, ZhaoGuo He, JiaHao Zhong, 2020: A MAVEN investigation of O++ in the dayside Martian ionosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 11-16. doi: 10.26464/epp2020009

[4]

ZiChuan Li, Jun Cui, Jing Li, XiaoShu Wu, JiaHao Zhong, FaYu Jiang, 2020: Solar control of CO2 + ultraviolet doublet emission on Mars, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 543-549. doi: 10.26464/epp2020064

[5]

MengHao Fu, Jun Cui, XiaoShu Wu, ZhaoPeng Wu, Jing Li, 2020: The variations of the Martian exobase altitude, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 4-10. doi: 10.26464/epp2020010

[6]

MeiJuan Yao, Jun Cui, XiaoShu Wu, YingYing Huang, WenRui Wang, 2019: Variability of the Martian ionosphere from the MAVEN Radio Occultation Science Experiment, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 283-289. doi: 10.26464/epp2019029

[7]

JunYi Wang, XinAn Yue, Yong Wei, WeiXing Wan, 2018: Optimization of the Mars ionospheric radio occultation retrieval, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 292-302. doi: 10.26464/epp2018027

[8]

ShuWen Tang, Yi Wang, HongYun Zhao, Fang Fang, Yi Qian, YongJie Zhang, HaiBo Yang, CunHui Li, Qiang Fu, Jie Kong, XiangYu Hu, Hong Su, ZhiYu Sun, YuHong Yu, BaoMing Zhang, Yu Sun, ZhiPeng Sun, 2020: Calibration of Mars Energetic Particle Analyzer (MEPA), Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 355-363. doi: 10.26464/epp2020055

[9]

LingGao Kong, AiBing Zhang, Zhen Tian, XiangZhi Zheng, WenJing Wang, Bin Liu, Peter Wurz, Daniele Piazza, Adrian Etter, Bin Su, YaYa An, JianJing Ding, WenYa Li, Yong Liu, Lei Li, YiRen Li, Xu Tan, YueQiang Sun, 2020: Mars Ion and Neutral Particle Analyzer (MINPA) for Chinese Mars Exploration Mission (Tianwen-1): Design and ground calibration, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 333-344. doi: 10.26464/epp2020053

[10]

Kai Liu, XinJun Hao, YiRen Li, TieLong Zhang, ZongHao Pan, ManMing Chen, XiaoWen Hu, Xin Li, ChengLong Shen, YuMing Wang, 2020: Mars Orbiter magnetometer of China’s First Mars Mission Tianwen-1, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 384-389. doi: 10.26464/epp2020058

[11]

Bin Zhou, ShaoXiang Shen, Wei Lu, YuXi Li, Qing Liu, ChuanJun Tang, ShiDong Li, GuangYou Fang, 2020: The Mars rover subsurface penetrating radar onboard China's Mars 2020 mission, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 345-354. doi: 10.26464/epp2020054

[12]

Jun Cui, ZhaoJin Rong, Yong Wei, YuMing Wang, 2020: Recent investigations of the near-Mars space environment by the planetary aeronomy and space physics community in China, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 1-3. doi: 10.26464/epp2020001

[13]

XinZhou Li, ZhaoJin Rong, JiaWei Gao, Yong Wei, Zhen Shi, Tao Yu, WeiXing Wan, 2020: A local Martian crustal field model: Targeting the candidate landing site of the 2020 Chinese Mars Rover, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 420-428. doi: 10.26464/epp2020045

[14]

Chi-Fong Wong, Kim-Chiu Chow, Kwing L. Chan, Jing Xiao, Yemeng Wang, 2021: Some features of effective radius and variance of dust particles in numerical simulations of the dust climate on Mars, Earth and Planetary Physics. doi: 10.26464/epp2021005

[15]

YuTian Cao, Jun Cui, BinBin Ni, XiaoShu Wu, Qiong Luo, ZhaoGuo He, 2020: Bidirectional electron conic observations for photoelectrons in the Martian ionosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 403-407. doi: 10.26464/epp2020037

[16]

WeiXing Wan, Chi Wang, ChunLai Li, Yong Wei, JianJun Liu, 2020: The payloads of planetary physics research onboard China’s First Mars Mission (Tianwen-1), Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 331-332. doi: 10.26464/epp2020052

[17]

Hao Gu, Jun Cui, DanDan Niu, LongKang Dai, JianPing Huang, XiaoShu Wu, YongQiang Hao, Yong Wei, 2020: Observation of CO2++ dication in the dayside Martian upper atmosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 396-402. doi: 10.26464/epp2020036

[18]

Deepak Singh, 2020: Impact of surface Albedo on Martian photochemistry, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 206-211. doi: 10.26464/epp2020025

[19]

Adriane Marques de Souza Franco, Markus Fränz, Ezequiel Echer, Mauricio José Alves Bolzan, 2019: Correlation length around Mars: A statistical study with MEX and MAVEN observations, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 560-569. doi: 10.26464/epp2019051

[20]

Qi Xu, XiaoJun Xu, Qing Chang, JiaYing Xu, Jing Wang, YuDong Ye, 2020: An ICME impact on the Martian hydrogen corona, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 38-44. doi: 10.26464/epp2020006

Article Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract views()
  • HTML views()
  • Cited by(0)
Catalog

Figures And Tables

Photoelectron pitch angle distribution near Mars and implications on cross terminator magnetic field connectivity

YuTian Cao, Jun Cui, XiaoShu Wu, JiaHao Zhong