Atmospheric composition is an important indicator of habitability and life. The presence or absence of a large exomoon around an Earth-size exoplanet could have important consequences for planet climate stability. Thus the detection of exomoons and retrieval of information regarding atmospheric composition of Earth-size exoplanets are important goals of future exoplanet observations. Here a data analysis method is developed to achieve both goals simultaneously, based on reflection spectra of exoplanet-exomoon systems. We show that the existence of exomoons, the size of exomoons, and the concentrations of some atomic and molecular species in the atmospheres of their hosting Earth-like exoplanets can be retrieved with high levels of reliability. In addition, the method can provide well-constrained fractions of basic surface types on the targets because of the characteristic spectral features of atmospheric species and surface types in the analyzed spectral range.
Atmospheric escape is a key process controlling the long term evolution of planets. Radiative cooling competes for energy against atmospheric escape in planetary upper atmospheres. In this work, we use a population balance method and a Monte Carlo model to calculate the previously ignored emissions of metals (C, N, O and their ions) and compare them with radiative recombination of H II and Ly-α emission of H I, which are the most efficient cooling mechanisms currently recognized in the upper atmospheres of hot Jupiters. The results show that the emissions of C, N, O and their ions are strong non-linear functions of environmental parameters (temperature, density, etc.) and are likely to be efficient cooling mechanisms in the upper atmospheres of close-in exoplanets.