The 13 November 2016 Kaikoura earthquake occurred in the northeastern coastal region of the South Island, New Zealand. The Mw 7.8 mainshock generated a complex pattern of surface ruptures, and was followed within about 12 hours by three moderate shocks of Mw ≥ 6.0. Here we use teleseismic waveforms to invert for the source rupture of the Kaikoura earthquake. The resulting slip-distribution model exhibits insignificant slip near the hypocenter and three pockets of major slip zones with distinct senses of motion. The mainshock started from a rupture near the hypocenter, grew into thrust on shallow crustal faults ~50 km northeast of the hypocenter, and then developed into two slip zones: a deeper one with oblique thrust and a shallower one with almost purely right-lateral strike-slip. Locations of the thrust and strike-slip motions in the slip-distribution model agree well with reported coastal uplifts and horizontal offsets. The overall slip pattern is dominated by horizontal motion, especially at shallow depth, due to the partitioning of thrust and strike-slip motions above the subduction zone megathrust. Aftershock distribution suggests that most aftershocks tend to occur near the edges of the major slip zones of the mainshock. This observation on aftershock locations may provide useful information for seismic hazard assessments after large earthquakes.
We determined focal mechanism solutions of 627 earthquakes of magnitude M ≥ 3.0 in Yunnan from January 2008 to May 2018 by using broadband waveforms recorded by 287 permanent and temporary regional stations. The results clearly revealed predominantly strike-slip faulting characteristics for earthquakes in Yunnan, with focal depths concentrated in the top 10 km of the crust. The earthquake mechanisms obtained were combined with the global centroid moment tensor solutions of 80 additional earthquakes from 1976 to 2016 to invert for the regional variations of stress field orientation by using a damped regional-scale stress inversion scheme. Results of the stress field inversion confirmed that the Yunnan region is under a strike–slip stress regime, with both maximum and minimum stress axes being nearly horizontal. The maximum compressional axes are primarily oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, and they experience a clockwise rotation from north to south, whereas the maximum extensional axes are oriented largely northeast-southwest. The maximum compressional axes are in line with the global positioning system–inferred horizontal velocity field and the southeastward escape of the Sichuan–Yunnan Rhombic Block, whereas the maximum extensional axes are consistent with anisotropy derived from SKS splitting. Against the strike–slip background, normal faulting stress regimes can be seen in the Tengchong volcanic area as well as in other areas with complex crisscrossing fault zones.