A three-dimensional four species multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model was constructed to simulate the solar wind global interaction with Mars. The model was augmented to consider production and loss of the significant ion species in the Martian ionosphere, i.e., H+, O2+, O+, CO2+, associated with chemical reactions among all species. An ideal dipole-like local crustal field model was used to simplify the empirically measured Martian crustal field. Results of this simulation suggest that the magnetic pile-up region (MPR) and the velocity profile in the meridian plane are asymmetric, which is due to the nature of the multi-fluid model to decouple individual ion velocity resulting in occurrence of plume flow in the northern Martian magnetotail. In the presence of dipole magnetic field model, boundary layers, such as bow shock (BS) and magnetic pile-up boundary (MPB), become protuberant. Moreover, the crustal field has an inhibiting effect on the flux of ions escaping from Mars, an effect that occurs primarily in the region between the terminator (SZA 90°) and the Sun–Mars line of the magnetotail (SZA 180°), partially around the terminator region. In contrast, near the tailward central line the crustal field has no significant impact on the escaping flux.
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are widely believed to play an important role in influencing the radiation belt and ring current dynamics. Most studies have investigated the effects or characteristics of EMIC waves by assuming their left-handed polarization. However, recent studies have found that the reversal of polarization, which occurs at higher latitudes along the wave propagation path, can change the wave-induced pitch angle diffusion coefficients. Whether such a polarization reversal can influence the global ring current dynamics remains unknown. In this study, we investigate the ring current dynamics and proton precipitation loss in association with polarization-reversed EMIC waves by using the ring current–atmosphere interactions model (RAM). The results indicate that the polarization reversal of H-band EMIC waves can truly decrease the scattering rates of protons of 10 to 50 keV or >100 keV in comparison with the scenario in which the EMIC waves are considered purely left-handed polarized. Additionally, the global ring current intensity and proton precipitation may be slightly affected by the polarization reversal, especially during prestorm time and the recovery phase, but the effects are not large during the main phase. This is probably because the H-band EMIC waves contribute to the proton scattering loss primarily at E < 10 keV, an energy range that is not strongly affected by the polarization reversal.
A particle-in-cell simulation of symmetric reconnection with zero guide field is carried out to understand the dynamics of ions along the separatrices. Through the investigation of ion velocity distributions at different moments and locations along the separatrices, a typical distribution is found: two counter-streaming populations in the perpendicular direction, with another two populations accelerated into distinct energy levels in the parallel direction. Backward tracing of ions reveals that the counter-streaming cores are mostly composed of ions initially located at the same side of the separatrix, while the other two accelerated populations in the parallel direction are composed of ions crossing through the neutral sheet. Through analysis of energy conversion of these populations, it is found that the ion energization along the separatrix is attributable primarily to the Hall electric field, while that in the region between the two separatrices is caused primarily by the induced reconnection electric field. For the counter-streaming population, the low-energy ions that cross the separatrix twice are affected by both Hall and reconnection electric fields, while the high-energy ions that directly enter the separatrix from the unperturbed plasma are energized mainly by the Hall electric field. For the two energized populations in the parallel direction, the ions with lower-energy are accelerated mainly by the in-plane electric field and the Hall electric field on the opposite side of the separatrix, whereas the ions with higher-energy not only experience the same energization process but also are constantly accelerated by the reconnection electric field.