Exohiss is a low-frequency structureless whistler-mode emission potentially contributing to the precipitation loss of radiation belt electrons outside the plasmasphere. Exohiss is usually considered the plasmaspheric hiss leaked out of the dayside plasmapause. However, the evolution of exohiss after the leakage has not been fully understood. Here we report the prompt enhancements of exohiss waves following substorm injections observed by Van Allen Probes. Within several minutes, the energetic electron fluxes around 100 keV were enhanced by up to 5 times, accompanied by an up to 10-time increase of the exohiss wave power. These substorm-injected electrons are shown to produce a new peak of linear growth rate in the exohiss band (< 0.1fce). The corresponding path-integrated growth rate of wave power within 10° latitude of the magnetic equatorial plane can reach 13.4, approximately explaining the observed enhancement of exohiss waves. These observations and simulations suggest that the substorm-injected energetic electrons could amplify the preexisting exohiss waves.
Plasma density is an important factor in determining wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere. We develop a machine-learning-based electron density (MLED) model in the inner magnetosphere using electron density data from Van Allen Probes between September 25, 2012 and August 30, 2019. This MLED model is a physics-based nonlinear network that employs fundamental physical principles to describe variations of electron density. It predicts the plasmapause location under different geomagnetic conditions, and models separately the electron densities of the plasmasphere and of the trough. We train the model using gradient descent and backpropagation algorithms, which are widely used to deal effectively with nonlinear relationships among physical quantities in space plasma environments. The model gives explicit expressions with few parameters and describes the associations of electron density with geomagnetic activity, solar cycle, and seasonal effects. Under various geomagnetic conditions, the electron densities calculated by this model agree well with empirical observations and provide a good description of plasmapause movement. This MLED model, which can be easily incorporated into previously developed radiation belt models, promises to be very helpful in modeling and improving forecasting of radiation belt electron dynamics.